Chapter 4 1. Circadian Rhythm: The pattern of fluctuations in bodily processes that occur regularly each day. 2. Hypnosis: An altered state of consciousness characteristics by focused attention, deep, relaxation, and heightened susceptibility to suggestion. 3. REM sleep: The stage of sleep that involves rapid eye movements and that is most closely associated with periods of dreaming. 4. Stimulants: A drug that activates the nervous system, such as cocaine or nicotine. 5. Consciousness: A state of awareness of ourselves and of the world around us. 6. Insomnia: Difficulty falling asleep, remaining asleep, or returning to sleep after nighttime awakenings. 7. Psychoactive drugs: Chemical substances that affect a person’s mental or emotional state. 8. Hallucinogens: Drugs that alter sensory experiences and produce hallucinations. 9. Narcolepsy: A disorder characterized by sudden unexplained sleep attacks during the day. 10. Tolerance: A form of physical habituation to a drug in which increased amounts are needed to achieve the same effect. 11. Depressants: Drugs, such as alcohol and barbiturates that dampen central nervous system activity. 12. Latent Content: True underlying meaning of the dream, disguised in the form of dream symbols. 13. Manifest Content: Refers to events that occur in the dream. 14. Sleep Apnea: Temporary cessation of breathing during sleep. (causes people to snore because of airways been too narrow) 15. Opioids: Are narcotics, addictive drugs that have pain-relieving and sleepinducing properties. (morphine, heroin) 16. Activation-synthesis hypothesis: The proposition that dreams represent the brain’s attempt to make sense of the random discharges of electrical activity that occurs during REM sleep. 17. Drug dependence: A severe drug-related problem characterized by impaired control over the use of the drug. 18. Physiological dependence: A state of physical dependence on a drug caused by repeated usage that changes body chemistry. 19. Biofeedback: A method of learning to control one’s bodily functions by monitoring one’s own brain waves, blood pressure, degree of muscle tension. 20. Psychological Dependence: A patterns of compulsive or habitual us of a drug to satisfy a psychological need. 21. Withdrawal Syndrome: A cluster of symptoms associated with abrupt withdrawal from a drug. 22. Sleepwalking disorder: A sleep disorder characterized by repeated episodes of sleepwalking. 23. Altered states of consciousness: State of awareness that differ from one’s usual waking state. 24. Drug Abuse: Maladaptive or dangerous use of a chemical substance. 25. Lucid dreams: Dreams in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming. 26. Daydreaming: A form of consciousness during a waking state in which one’s mind wanders to dreamy thoughts or fantasies. 27. Narcotics: Addictive drugs that have pain-relieving and sleep inducing properties. 28. Alcoholism: A Chemical addiction characterized by impaired control over the use of alcohol and physiological dependence on it. 29. Posthypnotic suggestion: A hypnotist’s suggestion that the subject will respond in a particular way following hypnosis. 30. Neodissociation theory: A theory of hypnosis based on the belief that hypnosis represents a state of dissociated consciousness. 31. Hidden Observer: Hilgard’s term for a part of consciousness that remains detached from the hypnotic experience but aware of everything that happens during it. 32.