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Chapter 4
1. Circadian Rhythm: The pattern of fluctuations in bodily processes that occur
regularly each day.
2. Hypnosis: An altered state of consciousness characteristics by focused attention,
deep, relaxation, and heightened susceptibility to suggestion.
3. REM sleep: The stage of sleep that involves rapid eye movements and that is
most closely associated with periods of dreaming.
4. Stimulants: A drug that activates the nervous system, such as cocaine or nicotine.
5. Consciousness: A state of awareness of ourselves and of the world around us.
6. Insomnia: Difficulty falling asleep, remaining asleep, or returning to sleep after
nighttime awakenings.
7. Psychoactive drugs: Chemical substances that affect a person’s mental or
emotional state.
8. Hallucinogens: Drugs that alter sensory experiences and produce hallucinations.
9. Narcolepsy: A disorder characterized by sudden unexplained sleep attacks during
the day.
10. Tolerance: A form of physical habituation to a drug in which increased amounts
are needed to achieve the same effect.
11. Depressants: Drugs, such as alcohol and barbiturates that dampen central
nervous system activity.
12. Latent Content: True underlying meaning of the dream, disguised in the form of
dream symbols.
13. Manifest Content: Refers to events that occur in the dream.
14. Sleep Apnea: Temporary cessation of breathing during sleep. (causes people to
snore because of airways been too narrow)
15. Opioids: Are narcotics, addictive drugs that have pain-relieving and sleepinducing properties. (morphine, heroin)
16. Activation-synthesis hypothesis: The proposition that dreams represent the
brain’s attempt to make sense of the random discharges of electrical activity that
occurs during REM sleep.
17. Drug dependence: A severe drug-related problem characterized by impaired
control over the use of the drug.
18. Physiological dependence: A state of physical dependence on a drug caused by
repeated usage that changes body chemistry.
19. Biofeedback: A method of learning to control one’s bodily functions by
monitoring one’s own brain waves, blood pressure, degree of muscle tension.
20. Psychological Dependence: A patterns of compulsive or habitual us of a drug to
satisfy a psychological need.
21. Withdrawal Syndrome: A cluster of symptoms associated with abrupt
withdrawal from a drug.
22. Sleepwalking disorder: A sleep disorder characterized by repeated episodes of
23. Altered states of consciousness: State of awareness that differ from one’s usual
waking state.
24. Drug Abuse: Maladaptive or dangerous use of a chemical substance.
25. Lucid dreams: Dreams in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming.
26. Daydreaming: A form of consciousness during a waking state in which one’s
mind wanders to dreamy thoughts or fantasies.
27. Narcotics: Addictive drugs that have pain-relieving and sleep inducing
28. Alcoholism: A Chemical addiction characterized by impaired control over the use
of alcohol and physiological dependence on it.
29. Posthypnotic suggestion: A hypnotist’s suggestion that the subject will respond
in a particular way following hypnosis.
30. Neodissociation theory: A theory of hypnosis based on the belief that hypnosis
represents a state of dissociated consciousness.
31. Hidden Observer: Hilgard’s term for a part of consciousness that remains
detached from the hypnotic experience but aware of everything that happens
during it.