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Transcript
UNIT V:
STATES OF
CONSCIOUSNESS
WHAT IS CONSCIOUSNESS?
• Involves the level of awareness of one’s being and the
surrounding environment
• Enables one to have voluntary control of one’s environment
• Allows one to communicate one’s mental processes/thoughts
to others
• The tip of the information-processing “iceberg”
BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS
• The human body has 4 biological rhythms:
• Annual cycle  seasonal variations in appetite, sleep habits, and
moods
• 28-day cycles  female menstrual cycle
• 24-hour cycle  levels of alertness, body temperature, and
growth hormone secretion
• 90-minute cycle  sleep stages last for this long
SLEEP IS IMPORTANT!
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pqpOZd2LtIo&f
eature=related
SLEEP RHYTHM
• Circadian rhythm: 24 hour cycle of day and night through this
biological clock
• Body temperature rises in the morning and drops during the day
• Thinking and memory are at their best during the daily peak of
the circadian arousal
• Jet lag, change in amount sunlight can disrupt the rhythm
SLEEP STAGES
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qEWbu37fH9k&feature=relat
ed
WHAT IF YOU DON’T SLEEP…WHAT
HAPPENS?
• Fatigue
• Lose ability to concentrate
• Greater likelihood to have accidents
• Feel disoriented/groggy
• Depressed immune system
• Lose sense of balance and coordination
• Hallucinations
• Short –term memory loss
FOUR THEORIES OF WHY WE
SLEEP
1. Sleep protects (during the night, sleeping is safer
than moving around)
2. Helps to recuperate – restore and repair brain
tissue
3. Helps memory – restore and rebuild memories of
the day’s experiences
4. Helps growth process – pituitary gland releases
growth hormone during sleep
SLEEP DISORDERS
• Insomnia – problem in falling or staying asleep
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=03IOyko4410&feature=related
• Narcolepsy – periodic, overwhelming sleepiness
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ubofbv9PA6s (7 min.)
• Sleep apnea – sporadic cessation of breathing during sleep, causing
less quality sleep and increases likelihood of sleepiness and
irritability during the day
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SM1uOcufihw
• Night terrors – children mostly affected by terror of the unknown in
the darkness
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfwFaKpOK74&NR=1&feature=fvw
p
BENEFITS OF
MEDITATION & RELAXATION
1. Deep breathing = more oxygen = healthier body
2. Slower heartbeats  internal organs are able to
function properly
3. Immune system is in FULL OPERATION mode; able
to fight off viruses and diseases
4. Peace of mind; sense of being present and whole
5. Allows one to decompress from the stressors of
daily activities
PAIR PARTNER DISCUSSION
How might one effectively relax and meditate at
the end of a grueling day?
DREAMS
• “hallucinations of the sleeping mind”
• Tend to involve the daily occupations and are connected to
things that one is subconsciously affected by
• Manifest content: the story line of dreams which incorporates
one’s experiences and preoccupations
• Video clip:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CWMEnkyL_qA&feature=r
elated
WHY DO WE DREAM?
• To satisfy our wishes
• To file away memories
• To develop and preserve neural pathways (physiological
function)
• To make sense of neural static (neural activity coming from
brainstem)
• To reflect cognitive development
DREAM ANALYSIS ASSIGNMENT:
Recall a vivid dream or nightmare that you
have experienced and write a brief
description of it on the given index card.
Use the Freudian dream analysis to
“interpret” this dream/nightmare. Be
prepared to share the analysis.
FREUD’S DREAM ANALYSIS
1. Displacement - This occurs when the desire for one thing or person is
symbolized by something or someone else.
2. Projection - This happens when the dreamer propels their own desires and
wants onto another person.
3. Symbolization - This is characterized when the dreamer's repressed urges or
suppressed desires are acted out metaphorically.
4. Condensation - This is the process in which the dreamer hides their feelings or
urges by contracting it or underplaying it into a brief dream image or event. Thus
the meaning of this dream imagery may not be apparent or obvious.
5. Rationalization - This is regarded as the final stage of dreamwork. The dreaming
mind organizes an incoherent dream into one that is more comprehensible and
logical. This is also known as secondary revision.
DR. JOHN M. ORTIZ’S
SOUND PSYCHOLOGY CD
FOR
RELAXATION/MEDITATION
ACTIVITY
Homework Grade:
Bring to class a small pillow or cushion!!!
HYPNOSIS:
• A social interaction in which the hypnotist suggests to the
subject/client that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or
behaviors will spontaneously occur
FACTS ABOUT HYPNOSIS:
1.
Almost anyone can experience hypnosis
2.
Hypnosis is believed to enhance recall of forgotten events
3.
Research reveal that a hypnotized person can be influenced
to perform dangerous or unlikely acts
4.
Hypnosis can be therapeutic  “posthypnotic suggestions”
5.
Some believe that hypnosis can alleviate pain through
“dissociation”
HYPNOTIC SESSION TO STOP
SMOKING
(10 MIN.)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uP8j2OwPwUc
HYPNOSIS: DIVIDED
CONSCIOUSNESS
Dissociation – a split between different levels of consciousness
• The ability to be aware of two events/situations at once, but not
perceiving the full effects of one of the events/situations
•
PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS AND
CONSCIOUSNESS:
Psychoactive Drugs: includes any chemical that changes the
physiological make-up of the brain and changes one’s behavior
for a period of time.
• Addiction: a compulsive craving for any substance in spite of
mild to severe psychological or physical consequences
Persons who stop taking psychoactive drugs once they are addicted
may experience:
1.
Withdrawal
2.
Physical dependence
3.
Psychological dependence
PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS
Drugs
Effect
Examples
Depressants
Slows down bodily
functions; slurred
speech; imbalance
during walking
Alcohol; marijuana
Stimulants
Speeds up bodily
functions; speeds heart
rate and breathing
Cocaine; caffeine;
methamphetamine;
Ecstacy
Hallucinogens
Produces hallucinations
– seeing, hearing,
tasting, smelling things
that do not exist
Huffing aerosol cans;
Shrooms, Nitrogens, LSD;
Heroin
Opiates
Powerful pain killers –
very addictive
Percocet; Xanax;
Morphine; Codeine;
Oxycodone;
Hydrocodone
INFLUENCES ON DRUG USE
• Biological
• Genetically prone to addiction
• Psychological
• Sense that life is without meaning or direction/purpose; depressed;
sense of self-worth
• Social-cultural
• Coping with problems/stress
• Need to fit in with peers
PAIR-PARTNER
DISCUSSION
In what ways might society combat addiction on the
psychological and social/cultural levels?