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UNIT V: STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS WHAT IS CONSCIOUSNESS? • Involves the level of awareness of one’s being and the surrounding environment • Enables one to have voluntary control of one’s environment • Allows one to communicate one’s mental processes/thoughts to others • The tip of the information-processing “iceberg” BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS • The human body has 4 biological rhythms: • Annual cycle seasonal variations in appetite, sleep habits, and moods • 28-day cycles female menstrual cycle • 24-hour cycle levels of alertness, body temperature, and growth hormone secretion • 90-minute cycle sleep stages last for this long SLEEP IS IMPORTANT! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pqpOZd2LtIo&f eature=related SLEEP RHYTHM • Circadian rhythm: 24 hour cycle of day and night through this biological clock • Body temperature rises in the morning and drops during the day • Thinking and memory are at their best during the daily peak of the circadian arousal • Jet lag, change in amount sunlight can disrupt the rhythm SLEEP STAGES http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qEWbu37fH9k&feature=relat ed WHAT IF YOU DON’T SLEEP…WHAT HAPPENS? • Fatigue • Lose ability to concentrate • Greater likelihood to have accidents • Feel disoriented/groggy • Depressed immune system • Lose sense of balance and coordination • Hallucinations • Short –term memory loss FOUR THEORIES OF WHY WE SLEEP 1. Sleep protects (during the night, sleeping is safer than moving around) 2. Helps to recuperate – restore and repair brain tissue 3. Helps memory – restore and rebuild memories of the day’s experiences 4. Helps growth process – pituitary gland releases growth hormone during sleep SLEEP DISORDERS • Insomnia – problem in falling or staying asleep http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=03IOyko4410&feature=related • Narcolepsy – periodic, overwhelming sleepiness http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ubofbv9PA6s (7 min.) • Sleep apnea – sporadic cessation of breathing during sleep, causing less quality sleep and increases likelihood of sleepiness and irritability during the day http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SM1uOcufihw • Night terrors – children mostly affected by terror of the unknown in the darkness http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfwFaKpOK74&NR=1&feature=fvw p BENEFITS OF MEDITATION & RELAXATION 1. Deep breathing = more oxygen = healthier body 2. Slower heartbeats internal organs are able to function properly 3. Immune system is in FULL OPERATION mode; able to fight off viruses and diseases 4. Peace of mind; sense of being present and whole 5. Allows one to decompress from the stressors of daily activities PAIR PARTNER DISCUSSION How might one effectively relax and meditate at the end of a grueling day? DREAMS • “hallucinations of the sleeping mind” • Tend to involve the daily occupations and are connected to things that one is subconsciously affected by • Manifest content: the story line of dreams which incorporates one’s experiences and preoccupations • Video clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CWMEnkyL_qA&feature=r elated WHY DO WE DREAM? • To satisfy our wishes • To file away memories • To develop and preserve neural pathways (physiological function) • To make sense of neural static (neural activity coming from brainstem) • To reflect cognitive development DREAM ANALYSIS ASSIGNMENT: Recall a vivid dream or nightmare that you have experienced and write a brief description of it on the given index card. Use the Freudian dream analysis to “interpret” this dream/nightmare. Be prepared to share the analysis. FREUD’S DREAM ANALYSIS 1. Displacement - This occurs when the desire for one thing or person is symbolized by something or someone else. 2. Projection - This happens when the dreamer propels their own desires and wants onto another person. 3. Symbolization - This is characterized when the dreamer's repressed urges or suppressed desires are acted out metaphorically. 4. Condensation - This is the process in which the dreamer hides their feelings or urges by contracting it or underplaying it into a brief dream image or event. Thus the meaning of this dream imagery may not be apparent or obvious. 5. Rationalization - This is regarded as the final stage of dreamwork. The dreaming mind organizes an incoherent dream into one that is more comprehensible and logical. This is also known as secondary revision. DR. JOHN M. ORTIZ’S SOUND PSYCHOLOGY CD FOR RELAXATION/MEDITATION ACTIVITY Homework Grade: Bring to class a small pillow or cushion!!! HYPNOSIS: • A social interaction in which the hypnotist suggests to the subject/client that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur FACTS ABOUT HYPNOSIS: 1. Almost anyone can experience hypnosis 2. Hypnosis is believed to enhance recall of forgotten events 3. Research reveal that a hypnotized person can be influenced to perform dangerous or unlikely acts 4. Hypnosis can be therapeutic “posthypnotic suggestions” 5. Some believe that hypnosis can alleviate pain through “dissociation” HYPNOTIC SESSION TO STOP SMOKING (10 MIN.) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uP8j2OwPwUc HYPNOSIS: DIVIDED CONSCIOUSNESS Dissociation – a split between different levels of consciousness • The ability to be aware of two events/situations at once, but not perceiving the full effects of one of the events/situations • PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS AND CONSCIOUSNESS: Psychoactive Drugs: includes any chemical that changes the physiological make-up of the brain and changes one’s behavior for a period of time. • Addiction: a compulsive craving for any substance in spite of mild to severe psychological or physical consequences Persons who stop taking psychoactive drugs once they are addicted may experience: 1. Withdrawal 2. Physical dependence 3. Psychological dependence PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS Drugs Effect Examples Depressants Slows down bodily functions; slurred speech; imbalance during walking Alcohol; marijuana Stimulants Speeds up bodily functions; speeds heart rate and breathing Cocaine; caffeine; methamphetamine; Ecstacy Hallucinogens Produces hallucinations – seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling things that do not exist Huffing aerosol cans; Shrooms, Nitrogens, LSD; Heroin Opiates Powerful pain killers – very addictive Percocet; Xanax; Morphine; Codeine; Oxycodone; Hydrocodone INFLUENCES ON DRUG USE • Biological • Genetically prone to addiction • Psychological • Sense that life is without meaning or direction/purpose; depressed; sense of self-worth • Social-cultural • Coping with problems/stress • Need to fit in with peers PAIR-PARTNER DISCUSSION In what ways might society combat addiction on the psychological and social/cultural levels?