International classification of sleep disorders, revised
... research in sleep disorders medicine. The years between 1990 and 1997 have witnessed wide-ranging changes in sleep disorders medicine from many perspectives: the growth of managed health care; public health care reform; efforts to better integrate sleep disorders medicine into the community of medic ...
Revisiting Narcolepsy: The Practical Diagnosis and Mythology (*)
... highly with Orexin in narcoleptic patients (90% or higher e.g.
92%) [1,2]. The problem is it has false positives in about one tenth
to one third of patients depending on the population.
In our clinical experience spanning over two decades of
evaluating such narcolepsy patients, these false positives ...
... symptoms of PTSD, depression, and panic; therefore, chronic nightmares could
be a significant maintaining factor of psychological distress (Davis & Wright,
2007; Forbes et al., 2003; Germain & Nielsen, 2003; Krakow et al., 2001;
Krakow et al., 2000).
Although the negative effects of chronic nightmar ...
pdf - MUK Publications
... times the mortality or cancer incidence of hypnotics users exceeded
that of controls. The heavy black bars show the statistical 95%
confidence limits of the hazard estimates, that is, statistically the
hazard ratio of the sample is 95% likely to be within the bars above
and below the vertical black ...
The bidirectionality of the relationship between insomnia, anxiety
... 6.2.1. Bidirectionality across various age groups and cultures ..................................................................161
6.2.2. Bidirectionality across different methods of assessment ................................................................163
6.2.3. Bidirectionality and follow- ...
Analysis of sleep spindles and model of their generation
... 2.6 Topographic distribution of relation between sleep spindles
amplitude and frequency. Each dot corresponds to one spindle. Positions of plots correspond to arrangement of electrodes
in 10/20 system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7 Topographical distribution of sleep spindle ...
Near Death Experiences
... Stimulating the vagus nerve in cats pushes them into REM
sleep within 45 seconds
Caffeine - Sleep - Centre Londres 94
... - Caffeine withdrawal symptoms disappear soon after the absorption of
caffeine in the blood
- caffeine withdrawal, headaches and cerebral blood flow ???
Neural mechanism of rapid eye movement sleep generation
... duration of REM sleep-like episodes (often less than 10
seconds) and the total percentage of time spent in such a
state is less as compared to mammalian REM sleep (about
5% of the total sleep time as compared to 15-30 % in
mammals)19. Further, unlike mammalian REM sleep, there
is no rebound increase ...
A Comparison of Lifelong and Posttrauma Nightmares
... whether differences found can be attributed to the nightmares themselves, as
studies typically compare individuals with nightmares and trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with individuals with nightmares but without trauma
and PTSD. This study sought to assess differences in nightmare ch ...
The Johns hopkins medicine Library
... again, with periods of normal mood in between. Manic episodes are characterized by a
distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood. The
episodes, with their restless energy and volatile mood swings, are severe enough to cause
trouble at work and home.
A role for sleep in brain plasticity
... humans and reaches low levels only at the pre-school
years period [8,17]. Globally, the time course of
REM sleep development in humans and other
mammals corresponds well with the brain maturation period.
During a period in which environmental experiences are very limited, the development of precise
... functional significance. Neural elements and processes related to sleep may give us a
clue for its functions. Unfortunately, the neural mechanisms underlying the generation,
maintenance, and termination of sleep are still not clear. Theories and the current
conceptions of these mechanisms are descri ...
REM Sleep - Test Page
... where. For example, spinal shock is a well known phenomeno in
which severing the spinal cord's connection to more rostra
brain regions causes a loss of functions known to be mediated
by circuits intrinsic to the spinal cord.
On the other hand, with the passage of time, this sort o
Muscle tone regulation during REM sleep
... indicate that the subcoeruleus neurons may form the
‘REM generator’ in the brainstem. The subcoeruleus
has been the focus of many other sleep researchers
investigating REM sleep mechanisms, although a
variety of names such as peri-locus coeruleus alpha,
peribrachial region and pontine inhibitory reg ...
basic mechanisms of sleep
... the more specific organization of those systems in the control of the alternation of wake, non–rapid eye movement
(NREM), and REM sleep.
Although the main focus of the chapter is on the our
own model of reciprocal aminergic-cholinergic interaction,
we review new data suggesting the involvement of ma ...
Idiopathic hypersomnia - Oxford Academic
... Almost half described restless sleep with frequent arousals.
Although 82% had slept for ù12 h on at least one occasion,
only 25% had prolonged night-time sleep episodes two or
more times per month. Habitual dreaming was present in
40%. Habitual problems with awakening occurred in 55%
but sleep drunk ...
Electrophysiological markers of Rapid Eye Movements in
... al. 2007; Kryger, Roth et al. 2011). This paradox of a sleep stage for which brain
and ocular activity are similar to wake led Michel Jouvet to designate REM sleep
as paradoxical sleep (Jouvet 1992). REM and NREM sleep are also characterized by
differences in consciousness. Reports of conscious expe ...
Functional Neuroimaging Insights into the Physiology of Human Sleep
... (NREM) sleep, decreases in brain activity have been consistently found in the brainstem, thalamus, and in several cortical areas including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), in agreement with a homeostatic need for brain energy recovery. Benefiting from a better temporal resolution, more
recent st ...
Fragmented Sleep, Fragmented Mind
... symptoms (Abrams, Mulligan, Carleton, & Asmundson, 2008;
McNally & Clancy, 2005a). Finally, Gurstelle and Oliveira
(2004) speculated about the existence of a newly identified
state of consciousness, daytime parahypnagogia, which they
described as "a transient and fleeting episode, that is dissociati ...
Tension Type Headache
... Frequent use of prescription or over-thecounter pain medicines (triptans or opiates
8 or more days per month or over- thecounter pain medicines 14 or more days
per month) can cause medication overuse headache. Frequent use of
any kind of pain reliever - acetaminophen, non-steroidal antiinflammatorie ...
4_ADHD Science Daily articles
... autism in terms of symptoms and learning difficulties. This new research suggests there may be a
shared biological basis to the two conditions.
The most significant overlap was found at a particular region on chromosome 16 which has been
previously implicated in schizophrenia and other major psychia ...
sleep disorders in children and adolescents
... medicine in the past century, the answer to the question: why do we sleep? remains
elusive. However, a large amount of empirical evidence shows that alterations in
sleep quantity or quality do impact on cognitive, affective and, more generally,
psychological functions. Therefore, an understanding of ...
Insomnia, or trouble sleeping, is a sleep disorder in which there is an inability to fall asleep or to stay asleep as long as desired. While the term is sometimes used to describe a disorder demonstrated by polysomnographic or actigraphic evidence of disturbed sleep, this sleep disorder is often practically defined as a positive response to either of two questions: ""Do you experience difficulty sleeping?"" or ""Do you have difficulty falling or staying asleep?""Insomnia is most often thought of as both a medical sign and a symptom that can accompany several sleep, medical, and psychiatric disorders characterized by a persistent difficulty falling asleep and/or staying asleep or sleep of poor quality. Insomnia is typically followed by functional impairment while awake. Insomnia can occur at any age, but it is particularly common in the elderly. Insomnia can be short term (up to three weeks) or long term (above 3–4 weeks); it can lead to memory problems, depression, irritability and an increased risk of heart disease and automobile related accidents.Insomnia can be grouped into primary and secondary, or comorbid, insomnia. Primary insomnia is a sleep disorder not attributable to a medical, psychiatric, or environmental cause. It is described as a complaint of prolonged sleep onset latency, disturbance of sleep maintenance, or the experience of non-refreshing sleep. A complete diagnosis will differentiate between free-standing primary insomnia, insomnia as secondary to another condition, and primary insomnia co-morbid with one or more conditions.Cognitive behavioral therapy is useful in insomnia that is present for a long duration. Those who are having trouble sleeping sometimes turn to sleeping pills, which may help, but also may lead to substance dependency or addiction if used regularly for an extended period.