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Transcript
AP CHEMISTRY 2011/2012
COURSE EXPECTATIONS/OBJECTIVES
Classroom Requirements:
 2 inch three-ring binder for this class only
 1 ½ inch three-ring Laboratory binder/portfolio
 Loose leaf paper
 Pencil and pen
 Graphing Calculator
 Box of lab gloves
Provided by School/Required for Class:
 Zumdahl “Chemistry” Textbook
 Zumdahl Study Guide
 Zumdahl Experimental Chemistry
Attendance/Tardies
 Attendance and tardies will be dealt with per the LNHS Student Handbook.
Homework:
Homework assignments must be clearly identified by page number, assigned questions,
and date. Answers must be outlined with a box, excluding theory questions.
Test Corrections/Re-Test:
Re-tests are available on all chapter tests within 5 days of receiving a test grade. An
average of the two grades will be recorded. Students will not be able to re-test unless all
homework assignments, labs, and study guide questions have been completed. Students
only receive 1 re-test per semester. Please choose wisely.
Labs/Experiments
Students are expected to abide by all laboratory safety regulations. Safety glasses,
gloves, and aprons will be required for most lab experiments (provided by the school).
For every day that an assigned lab report is late, the student will lose 10 percent. If a
student is missing more than one lab each quarter, they will receive an “incomplete” until
this deficiency is rectified. Once graded labs are returned, late labs will have a 50 percent
reduction in points.
Laboratory Notebook (Binder)
A laboratory notebook is required to organize students’ graded lab reports. It should not
be brought to class daily, but will be checked and graded at the end of each quarter.
THIS NOTEBOOK IS MANDATORY PER COLLEGE BOARD!!!!
Missed Notes, Homework, Assignments, Labs:
Students are responsible for missed notes, homework, and assignments due to absence.
This make-up work must be completed within (5) school days. Any exemptions will be
dealt with by Administration.
School Rules:
Students are also required to abide by LNHS rules, including but not limited to:
1.
No electronic devices (I-pods, cell-phones, pagers, etc….)
2.
No profanity
On-line Assignments:
Students will be assigned on-line homework through the Quest program provided by the
University of Texas. The student’s link to Quest is: https://quest.cns.utexas.edu/student.
Information
is
also
located
on
Ms.
Carroll’s
website:
http://iss.schoolwires.com/1683204495640550/site/default.asp
Course Evaluation:
Semester One
Reporting Period No. 1
Reporting Period No. 2
Mid-term AP Chemistry Exam
Semester Two
Reporting Period No. 3
Reporting Period No. 4
37.5 %
37.5 %
25 %
50 % Total
50 %
50 %
50 % Total
Reporting Period Grade Evaluation:
Labs/Lab Notebook
Homework assignments
Online Assignments
Chapter Tests
Quizzes
Contact Information:
E-mail Address: lcarroll@iss.k12.nc.us
Website: http://iss.schoolwires.com//Domain/2854
Phone Number: 704-799-9555, Extension 411
20 %
12 %
12 %
43 %
13 %
AP Chemistry – Course Syllabus
Class Profile:
AP Chemistry is a year-long, 90 minute course.
A typical week is organized to provide:
 3-4 days of lecture focused on the key objectives listed in the syllabus, including
teacher demonstrations
 1-2 days of lab activity. Labs may exceed one 90 minute class, depending on the
requirements of the specific lab activity. In addition, some sections/objectives are
more conducive to lab activity than others and will have more lab activity.
AP Chemistry Objectives:
The AP Chemistry course is designed to be the equivalent of the general chemistry
usually taken during the first college year. For some students, this course enables them to
undertake, as freshmen, second-year work in chemistry sequence at their institution or to
register in courses in other fields where general chemistry is a pre-requisite. For other
students, the AP Chemistry course fulfills the laboratory science requirement and frees
time for other courses.
AP Chemistry should meet the objectives of a good general chemistry course. Students
in such a course should attain a depth of understanding of fundamentals and a reasonable
competence in dealing with chemical problems. The course should contribute to the
development of the student’s abilities to think clearly and to express their ideas, orally
and in writing, with clarity and logic. The college course in general chemistry differs
qualitatively from the usual first secondly school course in chemistry with respect to the
kind of laboratory work done by students. Quantitative differences appear in the number
of topics treated, the time spent on the course by students, and the nature and the variety
of experiments done in the laboratory.
Prerequisites:
The AP Chemistry course is designed to be taken only after the successful completion of
a first course in high school chemistry (Chemistry 1). Surveys of students who take the
AP Chemistry Exam indicate that the probability of achieving a grade of 3 or higher is
significantly greater for students who successfully complete a first course in high school
chemistry prior to undertaking the AP course. Thus, it is STRONGLY recommended
that credit in a first-year chemistry course be a prerequisite for enrollment in an AP
Chemistry class. In addition, the recommended mathematics prerequisites for an AP
Chemistry class is the successful completion of a second-year algebra course.
AP Chemistry Topics:
1.
Structure of Matter
(20 percent)
a)
Atomic theory and atomic structure
b)
Chemical bonding
c)
Nuclear chemistry
2.
States of Matter
(20 percent)
a)
Gases
b)
Liquids and solids
c)
Solutions
3.
Reactions
(35 – 40 percent)
a)
Reaction types
b)
Stoichiometry
c)
Equilibrium
d)
Kinetics
e)
Thermodynamics
4.
Descriptive Chemistry
(10 – 15 percent)
a)
Chemical reactivity and products of chemical reactions
b)
Relationships in the periodic table
c)
Introduction to organic chemistry
5.
Laboratory
(5 – 10 percent)
a)
Making observations of chemical reactions
b)
Recording data/Communicating effectively the results
c)
Calculating/interpreting results based on the quantitative data obtained.
Unless otherwise noted, each laboratory will be “hands-on” and will involve:
a)
physical manipulation of equipment and materials in order to
make relevant observations and collect data
b)
use the collected data to form conclusions and verify hypotheses
c)
communicate and compare their results and procedures
(informally to classmates and in a formal, written report to the
teacher)
Resources:
1.
Text – “Chemistry” by Zumdahl (6th Edition), ancillaries and supplements
2.
The College Board Science Achievement Tests/Past AP Exams
3.
Video/Internet Resources (APEX, Glencoe, Zumdahl Interactive 6.0)
4.
Additional advanced chemistry texts (Brown et al, Hill et al, Holt Modern
Chemistry, Glencoe Chemistry Matter and Change)
5.
HM Class Prep with HM Testing v6.1
6.
Princeton and Cole AP Chemistry Test Preparation
AP CHEMISTRY COURSE OUTLINE
This course is given in terms of the Zumdahl Chemistry textbook (6th Edition). The
problems at the end of the chapters are very challenging and serve as an excellent tool for
students to use to truly comprehend the material. The problems also indicate the depth of
coverage required for each topic.
Introduction:
1 day
(Aug 25)
Predictive Assessment:
1 day
(Aug 26)
Unit 1: Review of Chemistry I Honors Topics
(Chapters 1-5, 11)
August 29 –
October 14
Chemical Foundations:
Measuring and units
Use of significant figures
Dimensional analysis
Classification of matter
Lab: Identification of Unknown Substances (60 minutes)
1 day
(Aug 29)
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions:
Early history of chemistry
Law of Conservation of Mass
Law of Definite Proportion
Law of Multiple Proportions
Dalton’s Atomic Theory
Avogadro’s Hypothesis
Early experiments to characterize atomic structure
Modern view of the atom
Introduction to the Periodic Table
Naming compounds
1 day
(Aug 30)
Stoichiometry:
7 days
Atomic mass, moles and molar mass
(Aug 31, Sep 1,2, 6-8)
Percent composition of compounds
Empirical formula determination
Chemical equations and stoichiometric calculations
Limiting reagent, theoretical yield, percent yield
Lab: Determination of the Empirical Formula of a Compound by the
Decomposition of a Metallic Oxide and the Formation of a Metal Sulfide (120
minutes)
Lab: Stoichiometric Determinations Lab (120 min)
Lab: Iron Tango Lab (limiting reactant/percent yield) (75 minutes)
Lab: Determination of the Percent of Water in a Hydrate (60 minutes)
Gases:
5 days
(Sep 12-16)
Pressure
Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and Gay-Lussac
Ideal Gas Law
Gas Stoichiometry
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
Kinetic Molecular Theory
Effusion and diffusion
Real gases/atmosphere
Lab: Determination of the Molar Volume of a Gas (120 minutes)
Lab: Charles’ Law Experiment (30 minutes)
Demo: Atmospheric pressure, Boyle’s Law
REVIEW (CHAPTERS 1 – 3, 5)
Sep 19, 20
(All Reviews include past AP questions, Zumdahl Study Guide questions)
TEST 1 (CHAPTER 1 – 3)
Sep 21(Wednesday)
MID-QUARTER REPORT
September 27
Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry:
9 days
Composition of solutions
(Sep 22,23,26-30,
Precipitation
Oct 3,4)
Acid/base reactions
Oxidation/reduction reactions (time permitting)
Stoichiometry problems involving solution chemistry
Predicting Reactions, Net ionic equations**** (continual)
Lab: Analysis of an Unknown Chloride (120 minutes)
Lab: Reactions, Predictions, and Net Ionic Equations (240 minutes)
Properties of Solution:
5 days
Energies of solvation
(Oct 5,6,7,10,11)
Factors affecting solubility
Vapor pressures and Raoult’s Law
Boiling-point elevation and freezing-point depression
Osmotic pressure
Colligative properties
Colloids
Lab: Colligative Properties Lab(45 minutes)
Lab: Determination of Molar Mass by Freezing Point (90 minutes)
REVIEW (CHAPTERS 4, 11)
TEST (CHAPTERS 4, 11)
REPORT CARDS (QUARTER 1)
Oct 12, 13
Oct 14 (Friday)
November 3
Unit 2: Atomic Structure and Bonding:
(Chapter 7, 8, part of 9)
Oct 17 – Nov 4
Atomic Structure and Periodicity
7 Days
Electromagnetic radiation
(Oct 17-21, 24,25)
Planck, photon, E=mc2
Dual nature of light
DeBroglie equation
Continuous vs. line spectra
Bohr atom
Modern view of the atom (wave function and probability)
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
Quantum numbers
Orbital shapes and energies
Electron spin, Aufbau Principle, Pauli Principle
History of Periodic Table
Periodic trends
Alkali metal properties
Lab: Flame Test for Metals (45 minutes)
Lab: Spectral tubes/Diffraction grating to view spectra (45 minutes)
Bonding: General Concepts:
5 Days
Types of bonds
(Oct 26-28,31, )
Electronegativity, electron affinity, & ionization energy
(Nov 1)
Bond polarity and dipole moment
Electron configuration and sizes of atoms and ions
Formations of ionic compounds
Ionic character of covalent bonds
Model of covalent bond energies
Bond energies, enthalpy, and chemical reactions
Localized electron bonding model
Lewis structures
Exceptions to octet rule
Resonance
VSEPR model
Hybridization
Lab: Molecular Model Lab No. 1(building structure using a molecular model kit,
identifying bonding type, drawing Lewis Structure, identifying molecular shape
and molecular force) (60 minutes)
Lab: Molecular Model Lab No. 2 (Exceptions to the Octet Rule – uses toothpicks
and Styrofoam balls to create structure)(60 minutes)
REVIEW (CHAPTER 7-9)
TEST (CHAPTER 7-9)
MID-QUARTER REPORT
Nov 2,3
Nov 4 (Friday)
December 7
Unit 3: Chemical Equilibrium
(Chapters 13-15)
Nov 7 – Dec 21
Chemical Equilibrium:
5 days
Equilibrium condition
(Nov 7-10, 14)
Equilibrium constant
Kp (pressure)
Heterogeneous equilibria
Solving equilibrium problems
Le Chatelier’s Principle
Lab: Stresses Applied to Equilibrium Systems (Le Chatelier’s Principle) (90 min)
Lab: Determination of Equilibrium Constant for a Chemical Reaction (120 min)
Acids and Bases:
11 Days
Nature of acids and bases
(Nov 15-18, 21,22,
Acid strength
Nov 28-30, Dec 1,2)
pH scale
Calculating pH of strong and weak acid solutions
Bases and base strength
Polyprotic acids
Acid/base properties of salts and oxides
Lewis acid/base
Solving acid/base problems
Lab: Stresses Applied to Equilibrium Systems (Experiment 26) (150 minutes)
Lab: Hydronium Ion Concentration and pH (90 minutes)
Lab: Determination of an Acid Dissociation Constant, Ka (50 minutes)
Lab: Determination of a Base Dissociation Constant, Kb (50 minutes)
Lab: Determination of an Unknown Concentration by Acid/Base Titration (60
minutes)
Lab: Titration of Weak Acid/Strong Base, Strong Acid/Strong Base, Weak
Base/Strong Acid (4 days) – calculations, graphs, experimental procedure
Lab: Soda Lab (50 minutes)
Application of Aqueous Equilibria
10 Days
Acid or base solutions with common ion
(Dec 5-9, 12-16)
Buffered solutions
Buffer capacity
Titrations and pH curves
Choosing an appropriate indicator for titrations
Solubility equilibria and solubility product
Precipitation behavior as pH is varied
Equilibria involving complex ions
Lab: Oh, What a Buffer it is!!! (60 minutes)
Lab: Determination of the Dissociation Constant of a Weak Acid (90 minutes)
Lab: Determining the Ka of an Indicator (60 minutes)
Lab: Ksp of Ca(OH)2
REVIEW (CH. 13-15)
TEST (CH. 13-15)
Unit 4: Thermodynamics and Electrochemistry
Chapter 6, 16, and 17)
Dec 19,20
Dec 21 (Wednesday)
Jan 3 – Feb 16
Thermodynamics:
7 days
Nature of Energy
(Jan 3-6, 9-11)
Three Law of Thermodynamics
State functions
Work, heat, and internal energy
Enthalpy and calorimetry
Hess’s Law
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
Present and future energy sources
Lab: Observing Heat Changes (30 minutes) – mixing/observation of three
thermochemical reactions, identification of endothermic or exothermic,
identification as physical or chemical change.
Lab: Determining the Specific Heat of an Unknown Metal – the specific heat
capacity of a nail will be experimentally determined by measuring the
temperature change of water and of the nail after it has been heated to
approximately 850 degrees Celsius in a Bunsen burner (45 minutes)
Lab: Thermochemistry and Hess’ Law – three different combinations of acids
and bases are made. All of the reactions are exothermic. The temperature
change of each reaction will be measured and the enthalpy will be calculated.
The reactions are chosen so that subtracting the chemical equation for the second
reaction from that of the first reaction will give the chemical equation for the
third reaction. Consequently, according to Hess’ Law, subtracting enthalpy of
the second equation for the first should lead to the enthalpy of the third;
therefore, verifying Hess’ Law. (90 minutes)
Lab: Measuring Energy Changes (Heat of fusion) – to determine the temperature
and heat changes that occur when ice melts. A heating curve will be obtained in
Part A and measurements will be taken in Part B to determine the experimental
heat of fusion (60 minutes)
Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy:
Spontaneous processes and entropy
Free Energy
Entropy changes and chemical reactionx
Free energy and chemical reactions
Dependence of free energy on pressure
Free energy and equilibrium
Free energy and work
6 days
(Jan 12,13, 24-27)
Electrochemistry:
11 days
Galvanic cells
(Jan 30,31, Feb 1-3,
Standard reduction potentials
Feb 6-10, 13)
Cell potential, electrical work, and free energy
Cell potential and concentrations
Batteries
Corrosion
Electrolysis
Commercial electrolytic processes
Lab: Electrochemical Cells –several different half-cells are prepared and
connected to find the voltages generated. The values are used to contract a table
of “relative” electrode potentials. Also, the change in concentration of one of the
solutions will be observed to see how this affects cell potential. Thirdly, we will
determine the solubility product of silver chloride.
Lab: Determination of Iron by Redox Titration (use potassium permanganate as
a titrant in the analysis of an unknown sample containing iron). (120 minutes)
REVIEW (CHAPTER 6, 16, 17)
TEST (CHAPTER 17)
MID-QUARTER REPORT
Feb 14,15
Feb 16 (Thursday)
March 1
Unit 5: Rate Kinetics
(Chapter 12)
7 days
Reaction rates
(Feb 20-24, 28,29)
Rate laws
Determining rate laws
Integrated rate laws
Reaction mechanism
Catalysis
Lab: Temperature and Reaction Rates – inquiry lab – what effect does
temperature have on the rate of a chemical reaction? (60 minutes)
Lab: Introduction to Reaction Rates – investigate how changing the temperature
of the reactants or how changing the concentration of potassium hydroxide will
affect the rate of reaction of methylene blue (60 minutes)
Demo: Iodine Clock reaction
Unit 6: Nuclear Chemistry
(Chapter 21)
Nuclear stability and radioactive decay
Kinetics of radioactive decay
Nuclear transformation
Detection and uses of radioactivity
Thermodynamic stability of the nucleus
Nuclear fission and fusion
Effects of radiation
6 days
(Mar 1,2, 5-8)
REVIEW (CHAPTER 12/21)
TEST (CHAPTER 12/21)
REPORT CARDS (QUARTER 3)
Unit 7: Review for AP Exam
Mar 9/12
Mar 13 (Tuesday)
April 7
27 days
(Mar 14,15,16, 19-23,
26-29, Apr 2-5,
16-20, 23-27, 30
AP CHEMISTRY YEAR PLAN
UNIT
Introduction/Safety
DATE
Aug 25
Predictive Assessment
Aug 26
Unit 1:
Review of Chemistry 1 Honors Topics
(Chapters 1-5, 11)
Aug 29– Oct 14
Unit 2:
Atomic Structure and Bonding
(Chapters 7, 8, part of 9)
Oct 17 – Nov 4
Unit 3:
Chemical Equilibrium
(Chapters 13-15)
Nov 7 – Dec 21
Unit 4:
Thermodynamics and Electrochemistry
(Chapters 6, 16, and 17)
Jan 3 – Feb 16
Unit 5:
Rate Kinetics
(Chapter 12)
Feb 20 – Feb 29
Unit 6:
Nuclear Chemistry
Mar 1 – Mar 13
Unit 7:
Review for AP Exam
Mar 14– Apr 30
AP Chemistry Exam
May 1, 2011
Organic Chemistry/Extra Labs
May 2 – Jun 1
Unit 8:
Confirmation:
I have read and understand all of the information explained above! I will turn the portion
in below the dotted line and keep the rest to serve as the first pages in my three-ring
binder.
Parent:
Guardian
Name
___________________
Name
Signature
________________
Signature
________________
_______________
Parent e-mail
Parent phone
Date
______
Date