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Transcript
Latin I: (INTRODUCTION)
INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGE: ca. 3,000 B.C.
1. Shows relationships by endings called Inflections.
Inflections are defined as the changes in the endings of words based on
their function in a sentence/clause.
 Nouns, adjectives, pronouns: 5 Declensions
(Decline!)
 Verbs: 4 Conjugations (Conjugate!)
2. Cases:
a. Nominative: subject or predicate.
ex. Susan enjoys music.
(Susan is the subject of the verb enjoy.)
ex. John is an athlete.
(Athlete is a predicate nominative renaming John.)
b. Genitive: possession or qualifying another noun.
ex. Jennifer’s father has many cars.
(Jennifer is the possessor of her father.)
ex. The general was a man of great courage.
(Of great courage qualifies man. It tells us what
kind of man the general is.)
LATIN I INTRODUCTION
PAGINA, I
c. Dative: indirect object.
ex. Mr. Jones gave his daughter many gifts.
Mr. Jones gave many gifts to his daughter.
(The daughter is the person to whom the gifts were
given.)
d. Accusative: direct object.
ex. Tim saw his sister at the store.
(Sister is the direct object of the verb to see. Sister
directly receives the action of seeing.)
e. Ablative: object of a preposition (use will vary).
ex. The farmer is working in the fields.
(Fields is the object of the preposition (in), and it
would be in the ablative case in Latin.)
f. Vocative: direct address.
ex. Mr. Smith, may John and I go to the store with you?
(Mr. Smith expresses direct address. He is the
person to whom the question was directed.)
3. Gender:
* Masculine, Feminine, Neuter
LATIN I INTRODUCTION
PAGINA, II
PRONUNCIATION
1. The Latin (Roman) Alphabet is the English Alphabet
EXCEPT: there is no W or J in Latin.
2. Vowels: a, e, i, o, u
Long
ā - father: nāvigō
Long
Short
a - idea: parō
Short
ē - they: parēs
e - get: terra
ī - machine: fīlia
i - sit: via
ō - note: prōvincia
o - omit: prope
ū - rule: pictūra
u - put: puella
4. Diphthongs: two vowels that make one sound.
a. ae - aye: praemium
b. au - ow - now: laudō
c. ei - neighbor: deinde
d. eu - ay-oo: neuter
e. oe - oy in joy: proelium
f. ui - uee in queen: huic
LATIN I INTRODUCTION
PAGINA, III
5. Consonants - like English except:
a. bs like ps: urbs
b. bt like pt: obtineo
c. c like c in came: camera - Caesar
d. g like g in get: genus
e. ch - character: pulcher
f. ph - philosophy: phalanx
g. th - think: theatrum
h. s - set: servus
i. i - y - youth: iubeo
j. v - w- wall: via
Britannus
fēmina
copiae
Germania
pictūra
puella
rēgīna
murus
amāmus
laudātis
tenent
cotidiē
LATIN I INTRODUCTION
PAGINA, IV
PARTS OF SPEECH:
Nouns
Adverbs
Pronouns
Prepositions
Adjectives
Conjunctions
Verbs
Interjections
1. Nouns: cases (ie. persons, places, things, states, or qualities).
2. Pronouns: (used in place of a noun)
* personal, demonstrative, interrogative, relative, reflexive,
emphatic.
3. Adjectives: (used as a modifier or qualifier of a noun).
* Relation to a noun or pronoun.
(comparison)
* Possessive Adjectives.
* Articles: definite and indefinite (there are none in
Latin).
LATIN I INTRODUCTION
PAGINA, V
4. Verbs: (usually used to express action or a state of being).
a. Transitive: a verb that can take a direct object (i.e. elect,
rectify, deny).
Intransitive: a verb that indicates a complete action
without being accompanied by a direct object (i.e. sit, lie,
think, am/are/is).
Linking: a verb used to join or unite a subject with a
predicate (i.e. am/are/is)
b. Qualities (or Characteristics): person, number, tense,
voice, and mood.
c. Infinitives as opposed to a finite verb:
Participles: a verbal adjective.
5. Adverbs: modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
6. Prepositions: joins a noun or pronoun to some other word.
7. Conjunctions: connect words or groups of words (i.e. clauses).
8. Interjections: used to express strong or sudden feelings.
LATIN I INTRODUCTION
PAGINA, VI