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Transcript
Five Paragraph Essay
Growth and Living Things
From the on-line dictionary, I found that it refers to (1) The gradual increase (e.g. in size
or number) of an animal or vegetable body over time.
(2) The development of an organism, e.g. of a plant from a seed to full maturity.
Paragraph One – Define “growth”
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which organisms grow and
develop. Growth is the process by which organisms increase in size. Organisms increase
in mass and volume. During growth, a living organism transforms material that is unlike
itself into materials that are like it. A person, for example, digests a meal of meat and
vegetables and transforms the chemical material into more of himself or herself.
Growth is caused by cell division and this is known as mitosis.
Paragraph Two – How things grow – plants and animals
We know that living things grow. A plant will get taller and produce new leaves and
flowers. A baby will grow into a child and then an adult. Growing is a complex business.
Growth means getting larger in size, and in animals and plants this is done by making
more cells.
Plants have special tissues called meristems where growth occurs. Root meristems grow
down into the soil, and shoot meristems grow upwards. A third meristem found as a ring
in the stem of some plants grows outward.
Animals, however grow by making new cells all over their body, and when an animal
first develops as an embryo, almost all cells are dividing together. Later, as the animal
reaches adulthood, most cells are not dividing. Some tissues, such as skin, divide
constantly, while others, such as nerve cells, don't divide at all.
Paragraph three –
Things that can increase growth rates are called “controls”. Plant growth is affected by
internal and external factors. The internal controls are all due to the genetic instructions
carried in the plant. These influence the extent and timing of growth and are mediated by
signals of various types transmitted within the cells, between cells, or all around the
plant. Intercellular communication in plants may take place via hormones (or chemical
messengers)
The external environments of the root and shoot place constraints on the extent to which
the internal controls can permit the plant to grow and develop. Prime among these are the
water and nutrient supplies available in the soil. Because cell expansion is controlled by
cell turgor, which depends on water, any deficit in the water supply of the plant reduces
cell turgor and limits cell elongation, resulting in a smaller plant. See also Plant-water
relations.
Mineral nutrients are needed for the biochemical processes of the plant. When these are
in insufficient supply, growth will be less vigorous, or in extreme cases it will cease
altogether. See also Plant mineral nutrition.
An optimal temperature is needed for plant growth. The actual temperature range
depends on the species. In general, metabolic reactions and growth increase with
temperature, though high temperature becomes damaging. Most plants grow slowly at
low temperatures, 32–50°F (0–10°C), and some tropical plants are damaged or even
killed at low but above-freezing temperatures.
Light is important in the control of plant growth. It drives the process of photosynthesis
which produces the carbohydrates that are needed to osmotically retain water in the cell
for growth. See also Photosynthesis.
Paragraph four – Growth in animals
Paragraph five – How growth can relate to our quondong project
I NEED TO WRITE ABOUT –
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References Used
http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Growth