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Name __________________________________ Class ______
Ch. 12 DNA and Ch. 13 RNA & Protein Synthesis
Test Chapter 12 – section 2 and 3; Chapter 13 – section 1 and 2
12.2 DNA Structure
1. What does DNA stand for?
2. What are the repeating subunits called that make up DNA?
3. Sketch and label the 3 parts of a DNA nucleotide. 
4. Name the 4 nitrogen bases on DNA (spelled out – spelling counts on the test).
5. What scientists made the first ever model of DNA as a double helix?
6. What is Chargaff’s rule?
Use it to figure out the following problem: In the DNA of a particular species, there is 26%
adenine. What percentage of their DNA is made up of…
A) Thymine ______
B) Cytosine ______
C) Guanine ______
7. How did Rosalind Franklin contribute to determining the structure of DNA?
8. What makes up the sides of a DNA molecule?
9. What makes up the "steps" of a DNA molecule?
10. What type of bonds holds the DNA bases together? Are they strong or weak bonds?
11. What type of bonds hold the "backbone" of the DNA molecule together?
12. Name the complementary base pairs on DNA.
12.3 DNA Replication
13. Why must DNA be able to copy itself?
14. Define semi-conservative replication (in DNA coloring packet!)
15. What is the first step that must occur in DNA replication?
16. What is a replication fork?
17. What are the functions of DNA polymerase?
18. Why aren’t many genes located on the tips, or telomeres, of chromosomes? What does
telomerase do to help with this?
19. If the sequence of nucleotides on the original DNA strand was A – G – G – C – T – A, what
would be the nucleotide sequence on the complementary strand of DNA?
20. Does replication of DNA begin at one end and proceed to the other? Explain.
21. Why does DNA replication take place at many places on the molecule simultaneously?
22. Is DNA replicated before or after cell division?
23. Sketch & label DNA replication on a separate sheet (use pg 351).
24. Give 3 differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic replication:
13.1 RNA and 13.2 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
25. What sugar is found on RNA, as compared to DNA?
26. What base is missing on RNA, & what other base replaces it?
27. Uracil will pair with what other on DNA?
28. Is RNA double or single stranded?
29. Name the 3 types of RNA and tell the job of each.
a. 1.
b. 2.
c. 3.
30. In transcription, _________________ is converted to ________________. This occurs in the
31. What happens to the newly made mRNA molecule following transcription in the nucleus?
32. What is RNA polymerase & what is its function?
33. What bases pair with each other during transcription?
34. In what part of a cell are proteins made?
35. What are the subunits called that make up proteins?
36. How many different kinds of amino acids make up proteins?
37. What is a codon & what does each codon code for?
38. How many codons exist?
39. What are the START (1)and STOP (3) codons for protein synthesis?
40. What is the ‘start’ codon used for? What is the stop codon used for?
41. Name the amino acid coded for by each of these codons:
a. UUA
b. AUU
c. UGU
d. AAA
e. GAG
f. CAA
42. Proteins are synthesized (made) at what organelle in the cytoplasm?
43. Sketch and label a tRNA molecule & tell its function.
44. Describe translation from the beginning, to the final end product:
45. Where are amino acids found in a cell?
46. What is an anticodon & where is it found on tRNA?
47. What codon on mRNA would bind with these anticodons: (use p367)
a. AAA
b. GGA
c. UAC
d. CGU
48. What are long chains of amino acids called?
49. Fill in the chart below with the anticodons/amino acids that would be coded for by the
mRNA sequence provided:
Write the anticodon
sequence underneath
the codons
List the amino acids
carried by those