10.4 – Cell Differentiation Name: _____________ THINK ABOUT IT 1. How do human cells get to be so different from each other? FROM ONE CELL TO MANY 2. How do cells become specialized for different functions? 3. All organisms start life as just ______________________. 4. What is an embryo? 5. During _______________, an organism’s cells become more differentiated and specialized for particular functions. 6. Where will you find specialized cells in a plant? 7. Fill in the blanks… Defining Differentiation 8. Define differentiation: 9. During _______________, cells differentiate into many different types and become ________________to perform certain tasks. 10. Why do multicellular organisms need differentiated cells? Mapping Differentiation 11. In the ________ C. elegans, daughter cells from each cell division follow a specific ______ toward a role as a particular kind of cell 12. Fill in the blanks: Differentiation in Mammals 13. ________ cells generally reach a point at which their ________________ is complete and they can no longer become other types of _________. STEM CELLS AND DEVELOPMENT 14. What are stem cells? 15. One of the most important ______________in biology is how all of the ___________, differentiated cell types in the body are formed from just a _________ cell. 16. What is a totipotent cell? 17. Only the ________________egg and the cells produced by the first few cell ______________ of embryonic development are truly __________________. Human Development 18. After four days what stage is a human embryo in? 19. What is a blastocyst? 20. If a cell is pluripotent what does that mean? Stem Cells 21. _____________ are unspecialized cells from which differentiated cells develop. 22. What are the two types of stem cells? Embryonic Stem Cells 23. Where do you find embryonic stem cells? 24. True or False: Embryonic stem cells are totipotent _____ Adult Stem Cells 25. _______ organisms contain some types of stem cells. 26. Adult stem cells are __________. They can produce many types of ____________ cells. 27. How are adult stem cells different from embryonic stem cells? Frontiers in Stem Cell Research 28. What are some possible benefits and issues associated with stem cell research? Benefits Issues 29. Stem cell research may lead to new ways to repair the ___________damage that results from heart attack, stroke, and _______ cord injuries. 30. Give one example of how adult stem cells could be used. 31. What are some ethical issues associated with using stem cells? a. b. c. d.