Biology 2013 Learning Goals Chapter 11- Introduction to Genetics Learning Goals for Text Section 11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel 1. Define heredity, genetics, traits, fertilization and pollination 2. Explain a monohybrid cross. 3. Describe the results (second generation) of Mendel’s monohybrid cross. 4. Define and give examples of alleles. 5. Compare and contrast dominant and recessive traits. 6. Identify the reasons for Mendel’s choice of the garden pea plant for his research. 7. Interpret Mendel’s Rule of Dominance. 8. Interpret Mendel’s Law of Segregation. Lab: “Wisconsin Fast Plants Genetics” 1. Students will design a lab to test Mendel’s Law of Dominance using radish “fast plant” seedlings. 2. Determine which trait is dominant and how it is inherited. 3. Predict the phenotypic ratios of the F2 generation. 4. Perform Punnett square analysis of offspring ratios to demonstrate how the traits are inherited in the radishes. Text Section 11.2 Probability & Punnett Squares 1. Compare and contrast genotype and phenotype. 2. Compare and contrast homozygous and heterozygous. 3. Explain how geneticists use the principles of probability to make Punnett squares. 4. Demonstrate the ability to set up and do Punnett Square Problems. 5. Demonstrate the ability to figure probability percents and ratios for Punnett Square problems. 6. Explain the principle of independent assortment. 7. Describe the results (second generation) of Mendel’s dihybrid cross. 8. Demonstrate the ability to use Punnett Squares to predict the probability of genotypes in the offspring in dihybrid crosses. Activity: Practice Problems 1. Simple Mendelian Inheritance 2. Punnett squares 3. Ratios and probability Lab: “Corn Genetics” 1. Predict the phenotypes of the kernels of Indian corn and then do actual counts of the kernels to test Mendel’s Laws of Dominance, Segregatrion, and Independent Assortment. Learning Goals for Text Section 11.3 Other Patterns of Inheritance 1. Describe incomplete dominance and demonstrate the ability to do the Punnett Squares using the appropriate symbols. 2. Compare and contrast incomplete dominance with codominance and demonstrate the ability to do the Punnett Squares using the appropriate symbols. 3. Describe inheritance from multiple alleles and demonstrate the ability to do the Punnett Squares using the appropriate symbols. 4. Describe polygenic inheritance and explain how a polygenic trait is distributed in the population. 5. Be able to give examples of each of the above patterns of inheritance. 6. Explain the relationship between genes and the environment Activity: Practice Problems 1. Dihybrid Cross 2. Incomplete Dominance 3. Codominance 4. Multiple Allelic inheritance Lab: “Baby Face dry lab activity” 1. Determine the genotype and phenotype of offspring using Mendelian genetics and probability. 2. Observe the tremendous variation that occurs as a result of independent assortment. Lab: Blood Typing – A Baby Mix-Up 1. Perform the ABO blood typing procedure. 2. Determine the ABO blood types of 2 sets of parents and 2 newborn children 3. Examine the genetic relationships possible between the parents and children 4. Match the “mixed up” children with their proper parents Learning Goals for Section 11-4 Meiosis 1. Contrast the number of chromosomes in body cells and in gametes. (Compare diploid (2n) and haploid (n) cells.) 2. Describe homologous chromosomes. 3. Define gamete, sperm, egg and zygote. 4. Explain sexual reproduction, and why it has an evolutionary advantage. 5. Compare and contrast the processes of mitosis and meiosis. What is the outcome of both processes? 6. Identify the stages of meiosis. Diagram each, and explain what happens during each stage. 7. Describe how crossing over provides genetic variation 8. Explain how alleles from different genes can be inherited together. Lab: “Pop Bead Mitosis & Meiosis” 1. Simulate the process of mitosis and meiosis with white boards and “bead chromosomes” 2. Compare and contrast the processes of mitosis and meiosis. Lab: “Simulating Meiosis Flipbook/Foldable” 1. Illustrate the movement of chromosomes during meiosis. 2. Demonstrate, by means of a flip-book, the separation of homologous chromosomes in meiosis. Lab: “Sea Urchin Fertilization Lab” 1. Fertilize a sea urchin ovum with sea urchin sperm. 2. Observe the growth and development of the embryo from fertilization to gastrulation.