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Transcript
Atoms and the Periodic Table Notes- Chapter 4
Atomic Structure Timeline
Democritus (400 B.C.)
•
Proposed that ___________________ was composed of tiny _______________________ particles
•
Not based on ______________________________ data
•
Greek: ___________________________________
Alchemy (next 2000 years)
•
Mixture of _________________________ and ______________________________.
•
Lab procedures were developed, but alchemists did __________________perform
______________________ experiments like _________________ ______________________
John Dalton (1807)
•
British Schoolteacher
–
•
_________________ ________________ Model
–
•
based his ________________on others’ __________________ data
atom is a ______________________________________________
Dalton’s Four Postulates
1) Elements are composed of ______________ _______________
particles called ________________________.
2) ______________________ of the same _______________________ are
____________________. Atoms of __________________ _________________ are
__________________________________.
3) Atoms of different elements ______________________ together in simple proportions to create
a compound.
4) In a chemical ________________________, atoms are ________________________, but not
changed.
Henri Becquerel (1896)
•
Discovered _______________________________
– spontaneous _____________________ of radiation from the _________________________
•
Three types:
–
________________________ () - positive
–
________________________ () - negative
–
_________________________ () - neutral
1
J. J. Thomson (1903)
•
Cathode Ray Tube Experiments
– beam of negative particles
•
Discovered Electrons
– negative particles within the atom
•
Plum-pudding Model
– positive sphere (pudding) with
negative electrons (plums) dispersed throughout
Ernest Rutherford (1911)
•
_____________________ _______________ Experiment
•
Discovered the _________________________
– dense, __________________charge in the _________________
of the atom
•
Nuclear Model
– dense, positive nucleus surrounded by negative electrons
Niels Bohr (1913)
•
_______________-_______________ Spectrum
– tried to explain presence of specific _____________ in
_______________ __________________
•
Energy Levels
– __________________ can only exist in specific
__________________ ___________________
•
Planetary Model
– _________________ move in _________________ orbits within specific energy levels
Erwin Schrödinger (1926)
•
Quantum mechanics
– _______________ can only exist in specified ____________
___________________
•
Electron cloud model
– ___________________: region around the _______________
where ____________ are likely to be found
•
_______________ represent ________________________ of finding an e- not actual electrons
2
James Chadwick (1932)
•
Discovered ______________________
– _________________ particles in the _______________ of an atom
•
__________________________ Experiments
– based his theory on their _______________________l evidence
•
Neutron Model
•
revision of _____________________________Nuclear Model
Structure of the Atom
A. Chemical Symbols
•
_______________________ matter!
•
Element symbols contain ______________ ______________ letter followed by
______________________ letter(s) if necessary.
Metal that forms
bright blue solid
compounds.
B. Subatomic Particles
Co vs. CO
ATOM
NUCLEUS
•
Poisonous gas.
ELECTRONS
PROTONS
NEUTRONS
POSITIVE
CHARGE
NEUTRAL
CHARGE
NEGATIVE RGE
Quarks
– ____________ types
– ______ quarks = 1 proton or 1 neutron
3
II. Electron Cloud Model
A. Orbital
•
Region where there is _________________ probability of finding an _____________________.
•
_____________ pinpoint the _________________ of an __________________________.
•
_____________________ of __________________ represents degree of ______________________.
•
Orbitals have different shapes.
s
p
d
B. Energy Levels
•
_________________ can only exist at certain energy levels.
•
___________energy levels are ________________ to the _______________.
•
Each energy level (n) can hold 2n2 electrons.
C. Bohr Model Diagrams
•
Simplified energy levels using Bohr’s idea of circular orbits.
Lithium
Atomic #:
3
Mass:
7
# of p:
3
# of e:
3
# of n:
4
Can replace
with
___ p
___ n
Maximum e
-
Level 1  ___ e
-
Level 2  ___ e
Level 3  ___ e
-
-
Level 4  ___ e
-
The Periodic Table
I. History of the Periodic Table
 Mendeleev
 Mosely
•
Dmitri Mendeleev (1869, Russian)
-
____________________ elements by increasing ______________________.
-
Predicted the existence of ____________________ ____________________________
4
•
Henry Mosely (1913, British)
– _______________ elements by increasing ______________________________________.
– Fixed problems in Mendeleev’s arrangement.
II. Organization
A. Metallic Character
•
_______________________
•
_______________________
•
_______________________
B. Terms
•
Periods - horizontal ______________ in the periodic table that represents the energy
_____________
•
Group - vertical __________________ in the periodic table that represents the number of
_______________ electrons (also called _________________)
III. Periodic Trends
A. Terms
•
Periodic Law
-
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
•
Valence Electrons
– ___________________ in the _______________________energy level
•
First Ionization Energy
-
_______________ required to _______________________ an ________ from a neutral atom
B. Periodic Trends
•
Atomic Radius
-
__________________ to the ______________ and _________________
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
•
First Ionization Energy
-
_________________ to the ____________________ and ______________________
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
5
•
•
•
Which atom has the larger radius?
– Be
or
Ba
– Ca
or
Br
Which atom has the higher 1st I.E.?
– N
or
Bi
– Ba
or
Ne
_________________= # of __________________________ (except He)
– _________________________ have similar _______________________.
•
________________________ = # of _____________________________________
Masses of Atoms
A. Atomic Mass
•
atomic mass unit (u or amu)
•
1 u = 1/12 the mass of a 12____ atom
-
1 __________________ = 1 u
-
1 __________________ = 1 u
-
1 u = 1.67  10-24 g
B. Mass Number
•
___________ of the ________________ and _______________ in
the _______________ of an atom.
•
Always a ____________________ number.
•
_____________ = _______________________________________
•
© Addison-Wesley
Publishing
Atoms of the same __________________ with ___________________ numbers
Company,ofInc.
____________________________.
•
Isotope symbol:
C. Isotopes
Mass #
Atomic #
12
6
C
“Carbon-12”
6
•
Average Atomic Mass
– reported on Periodic Table
– ________________ average of ____________ isotopes
Equation:
•
EX: About 8 out of 10 chlorine atoms are chlorine-35. Two out of 10 are chlorine-37.
Equation:
Families of Elements
Think of each element as a member of a family that is also related to other elements nearby.
I. Elements are classified into three categories
A. ________________
•
shiny ____________; good conductors of ___________ and _________________.
B. ________________
•
all found on the _____________ side of the periodic table (except for ___________)
•
can be solids, ________________, or gases
C. _______________ or __________________
•
nonmetals that can conduct _____________ and ________________.
7
8