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NAME ___________________________________________________ DATE _________________
Chapter 12: Molecular Genetics – Study Guide
Use the word bank to fill in the blanks below.
double helix
deoxyribonucleic acid
nucleic acid
DNA’s full name is ________________________ ________________. It is an example of a
biomolecule called ________________ ____________. DNA is found in the __________________ of
a cell. It is made up of millions of tiny subunits called ____________________. In each nucleotide,
there is a ______________, a phosphate, and a ____________________ base (_______________,
guanine, ______________, cytosine). When connected, these nucleotides form the shape of DNA, a
_______________ ____________. This shape is similar to a ladder. The sides, or backbone, of the
DNA ladder are made of the sugars and ___________________. They run ______________________
to each other. The rungs of the ladder are made of pairs of nitrogen bases. These bases are
________________________, which means they only bond with one other type of base. Adenine
always bonds with thymine, and ___________________ always pairs with guanine. The pairs are held
together by __________________ bonds. Adenine and thymine have __________, and
__________________ and cytosine have ________________.
Draw and label a nucleotide.
DNA Replication
Where does it take place? ______________________
When does it take place? ______________________
Why does it occur? ____________________________________________________________________
Put the steps of this process in order.
____ Two new molecules of DNA are created.
____ DNA polymerase attach the free-floating nucleotides to the exposed nitrogen bases.
____ Helicase begins to break the hydrogen bonds between nitrogen bases.
____ Cell starts into the mitosis phase of the cell cycle.
____ Free floating nucleotides pair up with exposed nitrogen bases.
Explain the function of the enzymes helicase and polymerase.
Explain the CENTRAL DOGMA:
Use the table to list the differences between DNA and RNA.
Type of sugar
# of strands
Nitrogen bases
Base pairs
What is mRNA?
Define transcription and translation.
What is a codon?
What do stop and start codons do?
Use the following DNA code to answer the questions: GAT CAC GGT ATC
a. Replicate it:
b. Transcribe it:
c. Translate it:
List and define the two types of mutations and then list and define the specific kinds.
1. ______________________:
a. ________________:
2. ______________________:
a. ________________:
b. ________________:
Although we are born with our genes, what else can have an impact on them? _____________________
Mutations that take place in the _____________________ cells will be passed on to offspring in every
Define each of the following
Genetic engineering:
Gene therapy:
Selective breeding:
Write a paragraph that explains the relationship between DNA, proteins, cells, chromosomes, traits, and
genes. Use each of these words in your paragraph.