NAME ___________________________________________________ DATE _________________ Chapter 12: Molecular Genetics – Study Guide Use the word bank to fill in the blanks below. three two nitrogen cytosine hydrogen double helix adenine thymine guanine nucleotide sugar phosphates antiparallel deoxyribonucleic acid nucleus complementary nucleic acid DNA’s full name is ________________________ ________________. It is an example of a biomolecule called ________________ ____________. DNA is found in the __________________ of a cell. It is made up of millions of tiny subunits called ____________________. In each nucleotide, there is a ______________, a phosphate, and a ____________________ base (_______________, guanine, ______________, cytosine). When connected, these nucleotides form the shape of DNA, a _______________ ____________. This shape is similar to a ladder. The sides, or backbone, of the DNA ladder are made of the sugars and ___________________. They run ______________________ to each other. The rungs of the ladder are made of pairs of nitrogen bases. These bases are ________________________, which means they only bond with one other type of base. Adenine always bonds with thymine, and ___________________ always pairs with guanine. The pairs are held together by __________________ bonds. Adenine and thymine have __________, and __________________ and cytosine have ________________. Draw and label a nucleotide. DNA Replication Where does it take place? ______________________ When does it take place? ______________________ Why does it occur? ____________________________________________________________________ Put the steps of this process in order. ____ Two new molecules of DNA are created. ____ DNA polymerase attach the free-floating nucleotides to the exposed nitrogen bases. ____ Helicase begins to break the hydrogen bonds between nitrogen bases. ____ Cell starts into the mitosis phase of the cell cycle. ____ Free floating nucleotides pair up with exposed nitrogen bases. Explain the function of the enzymes helicase and polymerase. Explain the CENTRAL DOGMA: Use the table to list the differences between DNA and RNA. DNA RNA Type of sugar # of strands Nitrogen bases Base pairs What is mRNA? Define transcription and translation. What is a codon? What do stop and start codons do? Use the following DNA code to answer the questions: GAT CAC GGT ATC a. Replicate it: b. Transcribe it: c. Translate it: List and define the two types of mutations and then list and define the specific kinds. 1. ______________________: a. ________________: 2. ______________________: a. ________________: b. ________________: Although we are born with our genes, what else can have an impact on them? _____________________ Mutations that take place in the _____________________ cells will be passed on to offspring in every generation. Define each of the following Genetic engineering: Biotechnology: Gene therapy: Cloning: Breeding: Selective breeding: Write a paragraph that explains the relationship between DNA, proteins, cells, chromosomes, traits, and genes. Use each of these words in your paragraph.