* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
sector to another. Because physical connections vary from a single passageway between a commercial property and a station to a large building combining station facilities with commercial floors, there are many varieties of joint development. Physical connections almost involuntarily create relationships among entities which own, lease, or manage property. A mutual contribution, however, has to be made intentionally. Cervero pointed out that mutual contribution can be divided into two types, i.e., revenue-sharing arrangements and cost-sharing arrangements. 4 1.3 Past studies on joint development Past studies are divided into two groups according to their themes: research focused mainly on individual joint development projects and research focused on the policies of transportation agencies. With respect to case study classification, more multiple-case studies have been found than single-case studies. As for studies involving individual projects, there is Chu's examination the feasibility of plans for air-rights at Boston's South Station, in which he determines that private investment would be indispensable. 5 Thomas has looked at the manner in which cities and developers might identify the key problems and opportunities in the Kansas City Union Station project. He examined three alternative development options: privately-led development, publicly-led development, and public/private joint-development. He, too, concluded that a substantial subsidy would be required to meet the developers' financial return goals in any of the three options. 6 Unlike these two single-case studies, the ULI Research Division minutely studied seven joint development projects in five cities in the U.S. and Canada. According to their study, joint development implementation efforts are comprised of two distinct but related activities in planning and development: policy-making and deal-making. 4 Ibid. 5 Michael Chu, Development planfor the airrights at South Station transportationcenter, 1985. 6 James E. Thomas, The interactionofpublic/privatedevelopment constraints:opportunitiesfor the reuse of Kansas City's historic Union Station, 1986.