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private entities developing the real estate, public transit authorities, and other public agencies. 1 Ten years late, after a number of joint development projects in the 1980s, the ULI's definition of joint development was altered slightly different way by the National Council for Urban Economic Development (NCUED) with the assistance of the Urban Mass Transit Administration (UMTA): Joint development has emerged as one product of the transportation-economic development relationship. Strictly defined, it is the relationship between transit and real estate whereby each contributes significantly to the other's value. ... Loosely defined, joint development is any private sector contribution towards public transportation which either decreases the costs of operating or constructing public transit systems, stations or improvements, or somehow contributes to the increased ridership of the system.2 While the ULI thought that joint development would be private development with contributions from transportation facilities, the NCUED perceived it as a private sector contribution to public transportation facilities in their loose definition. Following that, Cervero defined it as follows for the purposes of his study, Transit Joint Development in the United States, published in 1992: Any formal agreement or arrangement between a public transit agency and a private individual or organization that involves either private-sector payments to the public entity, or private-sector sharing of capital costs in mutual recognition of the enhanced real estate development or market potential 3 created by the siting of a public transit facility. In this statement, he does not pay attention to which sector benefits from which sector; according to him, all that is a relationship between two sectors. Generally speaking, according to the above three definitions, joint development requires three common components: a physical connection between real estate development and transportation facilities; a relationship between transportation agencies and other private or public entities; and, any contributions made by one 1 ULI Reserch Division, JointDevelopment: Making the reaal Estate--TransitConnection, 1979, p. 1. 2 The National Council for Urban Economic Development, Moving Towards Joint Development: The Economic Development - Transit Partnership,1989, p. 3. 3 Robert Cervero. Transit Joint Developoment in the United States, University of California at Berkeley, 1992, p. 4 .