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5
(h) Polymorphous :
Definition : A single substance which crystallizes in two or more forms under different
conditions is called polymorphous and this phenomenon is called as polymorphism. For
example, carbon exists as diamond and graphite, or sulphur exists as rhombic and monoclinic
forms.
(i) Glass
1. Glass is an optically transparent material produced by fusing together silicon dioxide (SiO2),
sodium oxide (Na2O), boron oxide (B2O3) and a trace amount of transition metal oxides
to impart colour to the glass.
Types of Glass :
Quartz glass
: Only silicon dioxide, SiO2.
Pyrex glass
: 60-80 % SiO2, 10-25 % B2O3 and remaining amount of Al2O3.
Soda lime glass : 75 % SiO2, 15% Na2O and 10% CaO.
Red glass
: trace amount of gold and copper.
Yellow glass
: UO 2.
Blue glass
: CoO or CuO.
Green glass
: Fe2O3 or CuO.
(j) Distinguish between Crystalline solids and Amorphous solids.
Crystalline Solids
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Amorphous Solids
These solids have definite characteristic
shape.
They have sharp melting point.
1.
These solids have irregular shape.
2.
When cut with a sharp edged tool, they
split into two pieces and new surfaces are
plain and smooth.
They have definite enthalpy of fusion.
They are anisotropic.
They are true solids.
3.
They do not have definite melting point.
They gradually softens over a range of
temperature.
When cut with a sharp edged tool, they
cut into two pieces with irregular surfaces.
They have regular arrangement of the
constituent particles. They are said to
exhibit long range order.
Example : Copper, Silver, Iron, Common
salt, Zinc sulphide etc.
7.
4.
5.
6.
8.
They do not have definite enthalpy of fusion.
They are isotropic.
They are pseudo-solids and super-cooled
liquids.
They do not have regular arrangement of
constituent particles. They may have short
range order.
Example : Glass, Rubber, Plastic etc.
Chapter - 1 Solid State
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