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357
An elementary reaction is one that occurs in a single step. The molecularity of an elementary
reaction is the number of reactant molecules that participate in the reactions. A complex reactions
occurs in a series of elementary reaction. The order of an elementary reaction is equal to
its molecularity.
The elementary reactions are classified as unimolecular bimolecular or trimolecular depending
on the number of reactant molecules involved. The observed rate law for a complex reaction
depends on the sequence of the elementary steps and their relative rates.
The slowest step in the mechanism is called rate determining step.
A chemical species that is formed in one elementary step in the mechanism of complex reaction
and consumed in the subsequent step is called a reaction intermediate.
NUMERICALS WITH SOLUTION
Type - I - Rate of reaction (Average rate and instantaneous rate)
Consider the reaction 2A + B ⎯⎯
→ 2C ,
Suppose that at a particular moment during
the reaction, rate of disappearance of A
is 0.076 M/s,
i) What is the rate of formation of C?
ii) What is the rate of consumption of B?
iii) What is the rate of the reaction?
Given :
Rate of disappearance of A is
d[A]
= 0.076 M/s
dt
To find :
d[C]
i) rate of formation of C is
dt
d[B]
ii) rate of consumption of B is
dt
Solution :
*1.
ii)
d[C]
dt
– d[A]
=
dt
= 0.076 M/s
=
Rate of consumption of B is
1
of rate
2
of consumption of A
Hence, Rate of consumption of B
=
– d[B]
dt
=
=
=
c)
Rate of reaction
=
2A + B ⎯⎯
→ 2C
i)
Rate of formation of A
The reaction shows that rate of formation
of C is same as rate of disappearance of
Hence,
Chapter - 5 Chemical Kinetics
– d[B]
dt
=
=
=
–1 d[A]
2
dt
–1
× 0.076
2
0.038 M/s
–1 d[A]
2
dt
1 d[C]
2 dt
0.038 M/s
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