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441
Formed by Dimerisation of NO2 molecules. Planar molecule, diamagnetic.
N – N bond is formed by sp2 – sp2 overlap. It is diamagnetic.
(f) N2O5 Dinitrogen pentaoxide.
Structure is symmetrical and linear. It is good oxidizing agent.
(j) Allotropic forms of phosphorus :
1. White (Yellow) phosphorus :
(a) Yellow, white waxy solid.
(b) Poisonous
(c) Insoluble in water; so stored under water to protect from air.
(d) Discrete tetrahedral structure : P4 molecule
(e) Reactive due to angle strain.
(f) Dissolves in organic solvents like CS2.
(g) Dissolves in caustic soda on boiling to form phosphine.
P4 + 3NaOH + 3H 2 O ⎯⎯
→ PH 3 + NaH 2 PO 2
Phosphine (sodium hypophosphite)
(h) Chemiluminescence : Its vapours undergo atmospheric oxidation to give faint,
green glow.
P4 + 5O 2 ⎯⎯
→ P4O10 (Phosphorous pentaoxide)
This property of glowing even in dark is called as chemiluminescence.
2. Red phosphorus :
(a) It is prepared by heating white
phosphorous in absence of air
in closed Iron pot to 573K.
Iodine is used as catalyst.
(b) It is reddish, violet solid.
(c) It is non poisonous.
(d) It is insoluble in water, alkali, organic solvents.
(e) It dissolves in conc HNO3.
(f) It does not show chemiluminescence.
(g) It is polymeric, with chains of tetrahedral units of P4 linked together.
Chapter - 7 p – Block Elements
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