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471
Following are important steps :
(a) Preparation of SO2.
→ 2Fe 2 O 3 + 8SO 2
S(s) + O 2 (g) ⎯⎯
→ SO 2 or 4FeS 2 + 11O 2 (g) ⎯⎯
excess
(b) Oxidation of SO2 to SO3.
V O
2 5
2SO 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2SO 3 (g) ; ΔH = –196kCal
(1) SO2 and O2 should be pure and dry to avoid poisoning of catalyst.
(2) To shift equilibrium towards right reaction should be carried at high pressure and
low temperature.
Optimum pressure / temperature are 2-3 atm / 723 K
SO2 : O2 :: 2 : 3 by volume
(c) Dissolution of SO2 in H2SO4.
SO 2 + H 2SO 4 ⎯⎯
→ H 2S 2O 7
98%
oleum
SO2 cannot be dissolved in water as it forms fog.
(d) Dilution of oleum
H 2S 2 O 7 + H 2 O ⎯⎯
→ 2H 2SO 4 (96 – 98% pure)
2. Lead chamber process : Following reactions take place
heat
S + O 2 ⎯⎯⎯
→ SO 2 (g)
2NO + O 2 ⎯⎯
→ 2NO 2
Intermediate
NO 2 + SO 2 ⎯⎯
→ SO 3 + NO
SO 3 + H 2 O ←⎯
⎯ H 2SO 4
Net Reaction :
NO
2SO 2 + O 2 + 2H 2 O ⎯⎯⎯
→ 2H 2SO 4
3. Physical properties of sulphuric acid
H2SO4 :
(1) It is colourless, dense, oily liquid (specific gravity 1.84 at 298K).
(2) Freezing point of sulphuric acid is 283K, boiling point is 611 K.
(3) It is highly viscous due to Hydrogen (x) bonding.
(4) Reaction with water is highly exothermic with spurting.
So water is never added to acid for dilution, but acid is added to water.
4. Chemical properties of sulphuric acid.
(a) It is dibasic acid : In aqueous solution.
+
–
H 2SO 4 H + HSO 4
Ka 1 > 10
Chapter - 7 p – Block Elements
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