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442
Properties
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Colour
Solubility in CS2
Action of air
M.P.
Action of hot NaOH
Physiological Effect
White phosphorus
Red phosphorus
White (yellow)
Soluble
Chemiluminescence
317 K
Forms phosphine
Poisonous
Reddish violet
Insoluble
No chemiluminescence
Above 773 K
No Phosphine formed (No action)
Non poisonous
White and red phosphorus
3. Black phosphorus :
(a) It is most stable form of phosphorus, so unreactive.
(b) It resembles graphite.
(c It is insoluble in carbon di sulphide.
(d) It is good conductor of electricity.
(e) It has two forms α and β black phosphorus.
803 K
(f) Red phosphorus ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯
→ α – form
Sealed tube
monoclinic
453K
White phosphorus ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯
→
β – form
high pressure
(k) Compounds of phosphorus :
1. Phosphine :
(a) Preparation of phosphine : From Calcium or Aluminium phosphide,
Ca 3 P2 +6H 2O ⎯⎯
→ 3Ca(OH) 2 + 2PH 3 ↑
Ca 3 P2 +6 HCl ⎯⎯
→ 3CaCl 2 + 2 PH 3 ↑
Calcium phosphide
2 AlP + 3H 2SO 4 ⎯⎯
→ Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 2 PH 3 ↑
Aluminium phosphide
Lab method :
P4 + 3 NaOH + 3H 2 O ⎯⎯
→ PH 3 + 3NaH 2 PO 2
Sodium hypophoshite
PH 4 I + KOH → KI + PH 3 + H 2 O
Phosphonium
(pure phosphine is obtained by this method)
iodide
(b) Properties of phosphine :
• Colourless, poisonous gas, sparingly soluble in water with rotten fish smell.
• It explodes with oxygen in air, forming white smoke of phosphorus pentaoxide.
Unique Solutions ®
S.Y.J.C. Science - Chemistry - Part I
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