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112
Definition : The spontaneous and unidirectional flow of the solvent molecules from pure solvent
into the solution or from a solution of lower concentration to the solution of higher concentration
through a semipermeable membrane is called osmosis.
*2.
Ans.
Explain the process of osmosis. or What is Osmosis?
(a) Osmosis was first studied by Abbe Nollet.
(b) Osmosis : When a solution is separated from a pure solvent by a semi-permeable membrane
(such as an animal bladder or copper ferrocyanide) then it is observed that the solvent
flows from the region of pure solvent into solution. [Ref. Fig. 2.4 (b)]
(c) Similarly, if two solutions of different concentrations are separated by a semi-permeable
membrane then the solvent flows from solution of lower concentration into solution of higher
concentration. This process is called osmosis.
(d) Definition : The spontaneous and unidirectional flow of the solvent molecules from pure
solvent into the solution or from a solution of lower concentration to the solution of higher
concentration through a semipermeable membrane is called osmosis.
3.
Ans.
Explain Abbe Nollet experiment.
(a) The apparatus consists of a long stem thistle funnel.
(b) The mouth of the thistle funnel is closed by a semipermeable membrane like pig’s bladder
(c) Sucrose solution of some concentration is filled in the thistle funnel.
(d) The thistle funnel is then placed in beaker containing water in inverted position.
(e) The solvent and solution are separated from each other by a semipermeable membrane.
(f) There occurs a net flow of solvent molecules into the solution.
(g) As a result the original volume of solution increases and liquid level of solution increases.
(h) Hydrostatic pressure is developed due to liquid column in thistle funnel.
(i) The liquid level in thistle funnel rises until the excess pressure so produced is sufficient
to stop the flow of solvent molecules.
(j) This equilibrium hydrostatic pressure which stops the net flow of solvent into the solution
is equal to Osmotic pressure.[Refer Fig. 2.4 (c)]
*4.
Ans.
Define : a) Osmotic pressure b) Isotonic solution c) Hypertonic solution d) hypotonic solution.
(a) Osmotic pressure : The osmotic pressure may be defined as the excess mechanical
pressure which is applied on the solution to stop the flow of solvent molecules into the
solution through a semi-permeable membrane. It is generally, denoted by π. It is a colligative
property.
(b) Isotonic solutions : Solutions which have the same osmotic pressure at the same
temperature are called Isotonic solutions.
(c) Hypertonic solutions : A solution having more osmotic pressure than some other solutions
is called hypertonic solutions.
(d) Hypotonic solutions : A solution having less osmotic pressure than the other solutions
is called hypotonic solutions.
Unique Solutions ®
S.Y.J.C. Science - Chemistry - Part I
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