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Transcript
CLAUSES
THE CLAUSE
 A group of related words that is used as part of a sentence
 Contains a verb and its subject
 Can be a complete thought; does not have to be
Example:
because English is so great
Spiderman is an outstanding movie
NOT:
was laughing
in front of the school
All clauses are either INDEPENDENT or SUBORDINATE
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
 Expresses a complete thought
 Can stand alone as a sentence
 Often joined with other clauses to make a longer sentence
Example:
Britney Spears is a popular singer.
Britney Spears is a popular singer, but I like Christina’s music better.
*Independent clauses are often joined by coordinating conjunction
(FAN BOYS—for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)
SUBORDINATE CLAUSE:
 Does not express a complete thought
 Needs an independent clause to complete its meaning
 Often begins with words like “if,” “when,” “although,” “since,” “because”
Example:
if you are waiting
when we went shopping
(SUBORDINATE CLAUSES STILL HAVE A SUBJECT AND VERB)
There are 3 types of subordinate clauses
1. adjective
2. adverb
3. noun
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1. THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE:
 A subordinate clause used as an adjective
 Modifies a noun or a pronoun
 Always follows the noun or pronoun that it modifies
 Answers the following questions: What kind? Which one?
Example: My sister, who is a good swimmer, will be going to train in
Florida in December.
Jenny, who is sixteen, watches the film Mean Girls at least once a month.
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES ARE INTRODUCED BY RELATIVE PRONOUNS:
1. who
2. whom
3. whose
4. which
5. that


Relative pronouns relate the clause the word it modifies
A relative pronoun also plays a role in the clause
Antecedent—the noun or pronoun modified by the adjective clause.
Example: Mrs. Zarnas suggested that outstanding novel that I am reading.
Exceptions:
1. The relative pronoun is “understood”
Is that the sweater [that] you bought yesterday?
2. The clause is introduced by an adverb, rather than a relative pronoun.
This is the place where I bought the sweater.
2
2. THE ADVERB CLAUSE
 A type of subordinate clause
 Modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb
 Answers the following questions:
o How
o When
o Where
o Under what conditions
o Why
Examples: When Billy-Bob went out with his friends, he lost his wallet.
I decided to save my money so that I could get a new stereo for my car.
Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions
 What makes the clause subordinate
 Does NOT play a role in the clause itself
Examples of subordinating conjunctions
after, if, as long as, because, so that, until, when
3. THE NOUN CLAUSE
 A type of subordinate clause that is used as a noun
 Can function in the following ways:
o Subject: That he was ill was Todd’s excuse.
o Predicate Nominative: The answer to the problem is what I have been
looking for.
o Direct Object: She did not understand what the point of writing papers is.
o Indirect Object: The teacher will give whoever is talking a detention.
o Object of the Preposition: Many complaints have been made about how
Ed sings.
Noun clauses are introduced by an “introductory word”
Examples: that, whether, what, who,
whoever, whose, where, why
1. Sometimes the introductory word does not have a function in the clause.
Example: I know that you will be successful.
2. Sometimes the introductory word does have a function in the clause.
Example: I know what you want.
3. Sometimes the introductory word is “understood”
Example: My mother said [that] I could stay out late.
3
CLASSIFYING SENTENCES BY STRUCTURE
Steps to classifying sentences:
1. Cross out any prepositional phases.
2. Label the subjects and the verbs within each sentence.
3. Label each clause as being either INDEPENDENT or SUBORDINATE.
4. Based on the number of independent and subordinate clauses, classify the sentence.
1. THE SIMPLE SENTENCE
Contains 1 independent clause
Contains no subordinate clauses
Examples:
I am happy.
On the way home from school, she stopped for a hamburger at
McDonald’s with her friends.
2. THE COMPOUND SENTENCE
Contains 2 or more independent clauses
Contains no subordinate clauses
Example:
I studied for my math test, but I failed it anyway.
3. THE COMPLEX SENTENCE
Contains 1 independent clause
Contains 1 or more subordinate clauses
Example:
When I write a paper for English, I feel great joy.
4. THE COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
Contains 2 or more independent clauses
Contains 1 or more subordinate clauses
Example:
The room that the boy painted had been white, but he changed
the color to bright orange.
4