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UNIT II: Renaissance & Exploration Please define and highlight the following terms in your notes. “Why is this term important to this unit?” Peter Parler Emperor Charles IV (1347-1378) Golden Bull Hundred Years’ War Edward III Philip VI Flemish cloth Gascony chivalry longbow Agincourt pillage & plunder Charles VII France (1422-1461) Joan of Arc (1412-1431) gunpowder Wars of the Roses Tudors Great Famine Black Death flagellants Jews Dance of Death Giovanni Boccaccio’s Decameron Jacquerie (1358) English Peasants’ Revolt (1381) Ciompi (1378) Hanseatic League confraternities hospitals pesthouses executioner Pope Boniface VIII Unam Sanctam Avignon Papacy Indulgences Great Schism conciliarism Council of Pisa (1407) Council of Constance (1415-17) The Witch Hammer Inquisition John Wycliffe (ca. 1330-1384) Lollards Jan Hus (1373-1415) William of Ockham (ca. 1300-1349) nominalism vernacular literature Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374) Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375) The Divine Comedy Geoffrey Chaucer (1343-1400) Christine de Pisan (1364-ca. 1430) Renaissance Florence Masaccio (1401-28) Botticelli (1445-1510) Donatello (1386-1466) Brunelleschi (1377-1446) Leonardo (1452-1519) Michelangelo (1475-1564) Francesca (1420-96) Raphael (1483-1520) Alberti (1404-72) Linear perspective Humanism Petrarch (1304-1374) Leonardo Bruni (1370-1444) Philology Lorenzo Valla (1407-1457) civic humanism Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472) Baldesar Castiglione (1478-1529) The Courtier Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527) The Prince city-states The Five Powers Medici’s Peace of Lodi (1454) Mehmed II (1451-1481) The Wars of Italy (1494-1529) caravels Prince Henry the Navigator (13941460) Bartolomeu Dias (ca. 1450-1500) Vasco da Gama (ca. 1460-1524) slave trade Alfonso de Albuquerque (14531515) Christopher Columbus (ca. 14461506) Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) Ferdinand Magellan (ca. 1480-1521) The Columbian Exchange Hernando Cortés (1485-1547) conquistadores Francisco Pizarro (ca. 1475-1541) Lusiads Bartolomé de Las Casas (1474-1566) UNIT II: Renaissance & Exploration MAKING CONNECTIONS & PUTTING LARGER CONCEPTS TOGETHER The following questions are intended to emphasize important ideas within the Unit. 1. What were the causes of the Hundred Years’ War? Who won? What was the impact on the two nations involved? 2. How did eastern Europe develop politically and economically? What was the impact of the Golden Bull on the Holy Roman Empire? 3. What was the Black Death? How did it affect Europe socially and politically? 4. What towns benefited from the decline of the urban centers of Italy? 5. How did the residence of the papacy at Avignon and the Great Schism affect the Church? What was conciliarism? 6. What was the nature of popular religious belief in the later Middle Ages? How did William of Ockham affect the development of medieval speculative theology? 7. How did the development of literature in the vernacular reflect political trends in Europe? 8. What was the political culture of Renaissance Italy? What defined the economy of the Renaissance cities? Define the social structure. 9. Discuss the artistic achievement of the Renaissance in the areas of architecture, sculpture, and painting. 10. Define humanism. What were the humanists’ most important achievements? 11. What were the five major political units of the Italian peninsula? What was the political structure of each of them? 12. How did the recovery of ancient knowledge influence the biological sciences? 13. How did the Wars of Italy destroy Italian hegemony? 14. What factors led to European exploration and discovery? What nation led the process? What made the Europeans virtually invincible against the defenses of indigenous peoples? What was the impact of the discoveries on the European concept of self?