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The Study of Body Function Chapter 1 Overview Introduction to physiology – scientific method Homeostasis and feedback control The primary tissues Organs and systems Introduction Physiology is the study of function of body or body parts. Emphasis is on cause and effect mechanisms These mechanisms were improved over time by using scientific method. Most of the times these mechanisms are based on homeostasis. Homeostasis is maintaining internal conditions within limits different from ambient (immediate) environment. Scientific Method Scientific Method: Science develops by 1) discovering new things, processes, and phenomena 2) asking right question/s 3) developing explanations = hypotheses and testing them repeatedly until all wrong ones are eliminated. Main steps include: Observation, Question, Hypothesis, Predictions, Experiment, Control – (similar to experiment but lacks variables; helps to eliminate other hypotheses), Conclusions and Theory. Conclusions result from supported or rejected hypotheses. Different hypotheses tested by many workers can lead to a general principle of science = Theory. Experimental group and control group, peer reviewed journals Development of pharmaceutical drugs Experiments on cells or tissues in vitro. Testing on animal models (rats or mice) Clinical testing is done on humans Phase 1 – healthy humans to know toxicity Phase 2 – target group with disease, to know effectiveness Phase 3 – at large scale in many centers wide population groups; seek approval of FDA Phase 4 – drug tested for other uses Homeostasis-a defining feature of physiology Homeostasis are dynamic mechanisms Homeostasis operates by self-regulatory feedback mechanisms Components of Homeostatic mechanism A. Reflex – neural and chemical pathways Receptors, 2. Integrating Center and 3. Effectors Physiological Variable, stimulus, Set point, balance of inputs and outputs B. Local Homeostatic Responses Organization levels Organization Levels: Body parts range from cells tissues organs organ -systems Body Intercellular Chemical Messengers Intercellular communication is essential to reflexes and local responses. Neurotransmitters, hormones, and paracrine or autocrine agents act as chemical messengers Internal Conditions 3 Important Body Fluid Compartments representing internal conditions ICF = Intracellular Fluid is present inside cells Tissue fluid = IST = Interstitial Fluid surrounds cells in tissues and organs Plasma is the fluid part of blood and runs through arteries, veins and capillaries Chapter 1 Recap 1 1. Intracellular fluid occurs in spaces ---------------------. 2. Interstial fluid occurs in spaces ------------ ---------3. ------------ is the liquid part of blood. 4. Molecules -------- tissues --------- organ-system ------5. Homeostasis maintains ----------- --------- within limits. 6. Most abundant fluid in body (28L) is -----------7. 2nd most abundant fluid in body (11L) is ------------8. The component that restores set point value is --------------9. The component that observes the change in variable is ------------10. The component that compares the value to set point --------- --------11. In homeostasis absolute values do not matter but the balance of ------------ and ------------. 12. In scientific method ---------- leads to a question and ----------- possible explanation to find general principle. The primary tissues Epithelial Tissues – surface forming - membranes Connective tissues – anchor and support Muscular tissues – contraction, movements Nervous tissues – excitation, rapid communication 11 Organ-Systems of Body Learn the parts and main functions of each system. Integumentary System Skeletal System Muscular System Nervous System Endocrine System Cardiovascular System Lymphatic System Respiratory System Digestive System Urinary System Reproductive System – male and female Organ-Systems 1 Integumentary System has Skin, hair and nails Protection, thermoregulation, and sensation Skeletal System has bones, cartilages, joints and ligaments Support, protection, movements and forms new blood cells Muscular System has skeletal muscles and tendons Movements, posture, heat generation Nervous System has brain, spinal cord and nerves Fast acting Control system, rapid internal communication, coordination, motor control, sensation Endocrine System has ductless glands - pituitary, thyroid, thymus, adrenal, testes and ovaries Secrete hormones to regulate metabolism, growth and reproduction Cardiovascular System has heart, arteries, veins and capillaries Distribution of nutrients, oxygen, hormones, antibodies and heat Organ-Systems 2 Lymphatic System has thymus, spleen, lymph nodes and vessels Returns leaked fluid from blood vessels, production of immune cells Respiratory System has nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs Procures oxygen, discharge of CO2, and speech Digestive System has mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, large intestine and small intestine, anus; liver and pancreas Breakdown and absorption of nutrients Urinary System has kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra Elimination of urea, maintain balance of water, pH and electrolyte Reproductive System - Male has testes, vas deferens, prostate gland, penis; production and delivery of sperm, production of hormones Reproductive System - Female has ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina Production of eggs, development of fetus, production of hormones Recap 2 Chapter 1 1. ---- system is responsible for rapid communication and coordination. 2. ----anchors and support other tissues. 3. Epithelial tissue forms surface covering --------, and ----by infolding. 4. ----system returns leaked blood from capillaries. 5. ----tissue has tightly packed cells with little intercellular spaces. 6. ----tissue has lot of formless intercellular matter with fibers. 7. We classify connective tissues on the basis of density of ------. 8. Local acting chemical messenger include ---- and ---- messengers. 9. Hormones are secretions of -----glands and always travel through ---. 10. Distribution of nutrients and oxygen is done by ---- system.