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Chapter 28: The Animal Kingdom: An Introduction to Animal Diversity – Guided Reading
1. List the 6 characteristics of most animals.
2. Most animals still live in marine environments. What are the advantages to this type of environment?
What are the challenges?
3. Why can living in a fresh water environment be a problem for an animal?
4. Why can living in a terrestrial environment be a problem for an animal?
5. Describe the 2 possible body symmetry types for animals.
6. Review the terms dorsal, ventral, anterior, posterior, lateral, medial, superior, inferior, sagittal, frontal
and transverse.
7. List and briefly describe the 3 types of body cavities. What is a coelom?
8. Compare cleavage, developmental fate of the embryo and blastopore for protostomes and
deuterostomes. Give examples of each group.
9. Briefly describe the 3 main classes of Phylum Porifera.
10. Describe the following terms for sponges:
a. choanocyte
b. spongocoel
c. ostia
d. osculum
e. epidermal cells
f. canals
g. porocytes
h. collar cells
i. mesohyl
j. amoeboid cells (amoebocytes)
11. Describe the following for sponges:
a. Feeding
b. Gas exchange/excretion
c. Response
d. Reproduction
12. Briefly describe the 3 classes of Cnidarians. Give examples for each one.
13. Describe the body plan of cnidarians, including the gastrovascular cavity.
14. What is the relationship between the epidermis, gastrodermis and mesoglea?
15. Describe the 2 body shapes of cnidarians.
16. Discuss the following regarding cnidarians (Hydrozoans as an example):
a. response – nerve nets
b. feeding – cnidocytes, nematocysts
c. gas exchange/excretion
d. reproduction – asexual and sexual
e. colonies
17. Describe the features of Phylum Ctenophora – comb jellies
18. Describe the features of Phylum Platyhelminthes – flatworms
19. List, describe and give examples for the 3 classes of flatworms.