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Invertebrates: Phylum Porifera and Phylum Cnidarians SPONGES or Phylum Porifera “Pore Bearers” Specialized Cells Major Body Functions Simplest of ALL Animals A. ____________________ – asymmetrical, pores all over body with large hole on top called an ____________________ where water is pumped through, Have no mouth or gut, Have no tissues or organs, Simple functions are carried out by a few specialized cells B. ____________________: skeleton of spicules (glass-like material) or spongin (soft) C. Feeding – filter feeders, trap microorganisms in water flow. 1. ____________________ - specialized cells that use flagella to move a steady current of water thru the sponge. Each collar cell digests its own food. 2. ____________________ - specialized cells that make spicules 3. ____________________– Cells thru which water flows into the body of a sponge D. Respiration/ Circulation/ Excretion – ____________________ flow carries out all body functions (osmosis and diffusion) • As water moves through the cavity: 1. ____________________ dissolved in the water diffuses into the surrounding cells 2. ____________________and other wastes, diffuse into the water and are carried away E. Response/Movement- no ____________________ system, do produce toxins, adults don’t move (sessile), larva swim F. ____________________- sexually with internal fertilization between two different sponges or asexually by budding or fragmentation The Anatomy of a Sponge osculum Water flow Central cavity pores Collar Cell Spicule Pore Cell Cell Epidermal Cell Archeaocyte The Ecology of 1. Ideal ____________________ for marine animals such as snails, sea stars, sea Sponges cucumbers, and shrimp Reviewing Sponges 2. ____________________ beneficial relationships with bacteria, algae and plant-like protists Why are sponges considered to be animals? Why are they considered the simplest animals? What do sponges feed on? What do sponges use as protection? Jellies or Phylum Cnidaria “Stinging Cells” Examples More Complex than Sponges A. ____________________ animals with stinging tentacles around their mouths B. Simplest animals to exhibit symmetry – cnidarians have ____________________ symmetry C. Simplest animals to have true ____________________ including nerves Examples: hydras, jellyfishes, sea anemones, and corals A. ____________________ : Most of life as polyp ex. Hydra B. ____________________: Most of life as medusa ex. Jellies C. Anthozoans: Only polyp stage in the life cycle ex. Corals and Sea Anemones Body Tissues Simplest animal with true tissues. -soft bodied, tentacles, radial symmetry, 1. ____________________ – gastrovascular cavity with one opening 2. ____________________- detects stimuli 3. Hydrostatic ______________- movement and support with the use of muscles Two Body Plans 1. ____________________ - Stationary, Examples: Hydra, Coral, and Sea Anemone 2. ____________________- Swimming, Cup Shaped. Examples: Jellies and Man O War. Polyp Body Functions Medusa 1. ____________________- kill small prey with stinging cells in tentacles, digest in gut, food in and waste out of one opening 2. Respiration/Circulation/Excretion- all by ________________ (no true organs) 3. Response- have specialized ____________________ cells and nerve net to gather info and react to ____________________ a. ____________________: groups of sensory cells that help determine the direction of gravity b. ____________________: eyespots made of cells that detect light 4. Movement- propel themselves with water using hydrostatic _______________ 5. Reproduction- asexually by ____________________, sexually by external ____________________, sperm and egg are released and meet in water Ecology of Cnidarians A. Source of new ____________________sunscreen 855 B. Provide ____________________ for marine organisms C. Source of ____________________ for other organisms (like sea turtles) D. ____________________ relationships with other organisms Reviewing Cnidarians Why are cnidarians considered more complex than the Porifera Phylum? List 3 importance of the Phylum Cnidarians?