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Review Worksheet for exam 2
Name a key characteristics (characteristic unique to that group only) of the following:
1. Bacteria: Prokaryotic, rod, spherical or spiral shapes, can be anaerobic or aerobic
2. Eukarya: Eukaryotic cells with nuclei, membrane bound organelles
3. Dinoflagellates: two whip-like flagella, cause red tides (toxic blooms)
4. Diatoms: silica (glass) shells, are primarily producers (phytoplankton).
5. Bryophytes: non-vascular, no roots, stems, flowers, or leaves, need water for reproduction.
6. Angiosperms: flowers, fruits, polliniators
7. ascomycetes: produce spores in sacs (asci)
8. sponges: no true tissues. Has flagellated collar cells.
9. Cnidarians: cnidocysts (stinging cells), true tissues but no mesoderm (no muscles). Has polyp and medusa
body forms, neural net (primitive nervous system),
10. Arthropods: jointed legs. Chitin exoskeleton.
11. amphibians: juvenile stage is aquatic, adult is terrestrial. Slimy skin that helps the animal breath.
12. birds: feathers. Hollow bones.
What is the difference between…
12. Virus and a viroid? Viruses can be DNA or RNA, and have protein coats (capsids). Viroids are only
RNA, infect only plants, and have no protein coats.
13. plants and fungi? Plants can photosynthesis, are primarily producers. Fungi do not photosynthesize, and
are primarily decomposers.
14. sponges and cnidarians? Sponges do not have true tissues, cnidarians have endo and ectoderm.
Cnidarians have cnidocysts (stinging cells).
15. Platyhelminthes (flatworms) and annelids (segmented worms)?: flatworm males have a penis, annelids
have independent segments, flatworms do not. Annelids have a closed circulatory system, flatworms have
an open system.
16. Angiosperms and gymnosperms? Flowers, fruits, pollinators. Gymnosperms are only wind-pollinated.
Includes the evergreens (conifers).
17. amphibians and reptiles? Amphibians reproduce in water, reptiles don’t. Amphibians have slimy skin,
reptiles have scaly skin. Reptile eggs have shells and amniotic sac, amphibian eggs do not.