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Transcript
Unit 4 Vocabulary #1
AP World History
1. Bill of Rights (U.S.) - The first ten amendments to the United States
Constitution. These amendments limit the powers of the federal government,
protecting the rights of all citizens, residents and visitors on United States territory.
2. Bourgeoisie - In France, the class of merchants and artisans who were
members of the Third Estate and initiators of the French Revolution; in Marxist
theory, a term referring to factory owners
3. Boxer Rebellion - Revolt against foreign residents of China
4. Capital - The money and equipment needed to engage in industrialization
5. Code Napoleon - Collection of laws that standardized French law under the
rule of Napoleon Bonaparte
6. Communism - An economic system in which the state controls means of
production
7. Congress of Vienna - Peace conference held after Napoleon’s first exile
(1814-1815). Presided over by Prince Klemens von Metternich it attempted to
bring stability back to Europe by focusing on compensation, legitimacy, & balance
of power
8. Conscription - Military draft
9. Conservatism - In nineteenth-century Europe a movement that supported
monarchies, aristocracies, and state-established churches
10. Domestic system - A manufacturing method in which the stages of the
manufacturing process are carried out in private homes
11. Declaration of Independence - Document that set forth the American
colonists’ reasons for separation from Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson, the
principal author, incorporated Enlightenment ideas such as “social contract” into
the declaration
12. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen - A statement of
political and private property rights adopted by the French National Assembly
during the French Revolution
13. Enclosure movement - The fencing of pasture land in England beginning
prior to the Industrial Revolution
14. Entrepreneurship - The ability to combine the factors of land, labor, and
capital to create factory production
15. Extraterritoriality - The right of foreigners to live under the laws of their
home country rather than those of the host country
16. Factors of production - Resources used in the production of goods and
services
17. Guano - Bird droppings used as fertilizer; a major trade item of Peru in the
late nineteenth century
18. Industrial Revolution - The transition between the domestic system of
manufacturing and the mechanization of production in a factory setting
Unit 4 Vocabulary #1
AP World History
19. Monroe Doctrine (1823) - Policy issued by the United States in which it
declared that the Western Hemisphere was off limits to colonization by other
powers
20. Maori - A member of a Polynesian group that settled New Zealand about 800
C.E.
21. Meiji Restoration - The restoration of the Meiji emperor in Japan in 1868
that began a program on industrialization and centralization of Japan following the
end of the Tokugawa Shogunate
22. Opium War (1839-1842) - War between Great Britain and China began with
the Qing dynasty’s refusal to allow continued opium importation into China;
British victory resulted in the Treaty of Nanking
23. Pogrom - Violence against Jews in tsarist Russia
24. Quantum physics - Branch of science that deals with discrete, indivisible
units of energy called quanta as described by the Quantum Theory.
25. Romanticism - A literary and artistic movement in nineteenth-century
Europe; emphasized emotion over reason
26. Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) - War between Japan and Russia over
Manchurian territory; resulted in the defeat of Russia by the Japanese navy
27. Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) - Conflict between China and Japan for
control of Korea in the late 19th cent.
28. Spheres of influence - Divisions of a country in which a particular foreign
nation enjoys economic privileges
29. Suez Canal - Canal constructed by Egypt across the Isthmus of Suez in 1869
30. Theory of natural selection - Evolutionary process by which favorable traits
that are heritable become more common in successive generations of a population
of reproducing organisms, and unfavorable traits that are heritable become less
common
31. Theory of relativity - Proposed by the Jewish physicist Albert Einstein
(1879-1955) in the early part of the 20th century, is one of the most significant
scientific advances of all time. Although the concept of relativity was not
introduced by Einstein, his major contribution was the recognition that the speed
of light in a vacuum is constant and an absolute physical boundary for motion.
32. Tanzimat reforms - Nineteenth-century reforms by Ottoman rulers designed
to make the government and military more efficient
33. Treaty of Nanking (1842) - Treaty ending the Opium War that ceded Hong
Kong to the British
34. Young Turks - Society founded in 1889 in the Ottoman Empire; its goal was
to restore the constitution of 1876 and to reform the empire
35. Zaibatsu - Large industrial organization created in Japan during the
industrialization of the late nineteenth century
* Spelling counts to some extent for each word.