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Unit 4 Vocabulary #1 AP World History 1. Bill of Rights (U.S.) - The first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. These amendments limit the powers of the federal government, protecting the rights of all citizens, residents and visitors on United States territory. 2. Bourgeoisie - In France, the class of merchants and artisans who were members of the Third Estate and initiators of the French Revolution; in Marxist theory, a term referring to factory owners 3. Boxer Rebellion - Revolt against foreign residents of China 4. Capital - The money and equipment needed to engage in industrialization 5. Code Napoleon - Collection of laws that standardized French law under the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte 6. Communism - An economic system in which the state controls means of production 7. Congress of Vienna - Peace conference held after Napoleon’s first exile (1814-1815). Presided over by Prince Klemens von Metternich it attempted to bring stability back to Europe by focusing on compensation, legitimacy, & balance of power 8. Conscription - Military draft 9. Conservatism - In nineteenth-century Europe a movement that supported monarchies, aristocracies, and state-established churches 10. Domestic system - A manufacturing method in which the stages of the manufacturing process are carried out in private homes 11. Declaration of Independence - Document that set forth the American colonists’ reasons for separation from Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson, the principal author, incorporated Enlightenment ideas such as “social contract” into the declaration 12. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen - A statement of political and private property rights adopted by the French National Assembly during the French Revolution 13. Enclosure movement - The fencing of pasture land in England beginning prior to the Industrial Revolution 14. Entrepreneurship - The ability to combine the factors of land, labor, and capital to create factory production 15. Extraterritoriality - The right of foreigners to live under the laws of their home country rather than those of the host country 16. Factors of production - Resources used in the production of goods and services 17. Guano - Bird droppings used as fertilizer; a major trade item of Peru in the late nineteenth century 18. Industrial Revolution - The transition between the domestic system of manufacturing and the mechanization of production in a factory setting Unit 4 Vocabulary #1 AP World History 19. Monroe Doctrine (1823) - Policy issued by the United States in which it declared that the Western Hemisphere was off limits to colonization by other powers 20. Maori - A member of a Polynesian group that settled New Zealand about 800 C.E. 21. Meiji Restoration - The restoration of the Meiji emperor in Japan in 1868 that began a program on industrialization and centralization of Japan following the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate 22. Opium War (1839-1842) - War between Great Britain and China began with the Qing dynasty’s refusal to allow continued opium importation into China; British victory resulted in the Treaty of Nanking 23. Pogrom - Violence against Jews in tsarist Russia 24. Quantum physics - Branch of science that deals with discrete, indivisible units of energy called quanta as described by the Quantum Theory. 25. Romanticism - A literary and artistic movement in nineteenth-century Europe; emphasized emotion over reason 26. Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) - War between Japan and Russia over Manchurian territory; resulted in the defeat of Russia by the Japanese navy 27. Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) - Conflict between China and Japan for control of Korea in the late 19th cent. 28. Spheres of influence - Divisions of a country in which a particular foreign nation enjoys economic privileges 29. Suez Canal - Canal constructed by Egypt across the Isthmus of Suez in 1869 30. Theory of natural selection - Evolutionary process by which favorable traits that are heritable become more common in successive generations of a population of reproducing organisms, and unfavorable traits that are heritable become less common 31. Theory of relativity - Proposed by the Jewish physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955) in the early part of the 20th century, is one of the most significant scientific advances of all time. Although the concept of relativity was not introduced by Einstein, his major contribution was the recognition that the speed of light in a vacuum is constant and an absolute physical boundary for motion. 32. Tanzimat reforms - Nineteenth-century reforms by Ottoman rulers designed to make the government and military more efficient 33. Treaty of Nanking (1842) - Treaty ending the Opium War that ceded Hong Kong to the British 34. Young Turks - Society founded in 1889 in the Ottoman Empire; its goal was to restore the constitution of 1876 and to reform the empire 35. Zaibatsu - Large industrial organization created in Japan during the industrialization of the late nineteenth century * Spelling counts to some extent for each word.