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Progress of
Objective: Explain the causes and effects of
the Industrial Revolution with emphasis on-the
growth of industrialization around the world.
Progress of
• When other nations began to industrialize, England
tried unsuccessfully to protect its lead by prohibiting
the export of the inventions described earlier.
• The first European country to industrialize was
• In 1817, an Englishman, John Cockerill, opened
textile factories there.
• After Belgium, France and Germany began slowly
to modernize their manufacturing procedures.
Progress of
• By the 1820s, United States entrepreneurs using English
technology had set up textile mills in New England.
• The most famous were the mills in Lowell, Massachusetts.
• After the Civil War, the United States experienced a
surge in industrialization caused by its abundance of
natural resources and raw materials.
• Cheap labor was supplied by the huge increase in
immigrants as well as by people moving from the
country to towns and cities.
• By the early 20th century, the United States led the world
in manufacturing.
Rapid Development of
• Technological innovations became more
advanced as industrialization spread.
• The period of the late 1800s, often called the
Second Industrial Revolution, was characterized by
greater and more rapid technological
developments than the earlier industrial revolution.
Greater Use of Steel
• Steel is stronger and more flexible than iron.
• Then, too, it does not rust.
• Therefore, steel replaced iron as the material from
which railroad tracks, beams for skyscrapers and
bridges, and machines were made.
• The use of electricity
as a power source
became widespread
in the late 1800s.
• Thomas Edison
produced the first light
bulb, which allowed
factories to operate at
• Electric street lamps
made city streets
Advances in Communication
and Transportation
• Communication changed with Alexander Graham
Bell’s invention of the telephone in 1876.
• Edison’s improvements to the telephone made it
more practical for widespread use.
• The invention of the internal combustion engine led
to the development of the automobile, which
transformed transportation.
• The innovations that occurred during the Second
Industrial Revolution helped shaped the world we
know today.