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Men of the Late Roman Republic
Pompey the Great
Julius Caesar
After the Social Wars of 91-87 B.C. between the Romans
and their Italian allies, the Roman Republic entered another
period of turmoil leading to its demise in dictatorship.
Commanders with loyal armies and veterans behind them
began demanding recompense and more by showing up in
force before the senate or by establishing a de facto coup
Sulla was the first one to do this, creating a bloody precedent
which Rome feared. The memory of this slaughter was in the
mind of every Roman when Julius Caesar crossed the
Rubicon with his army and headed toward Rome.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
• First general to march an
army into Rome to become
• Nick-named Felix,
meaning “lucky”.
• Sought to uphold
• Opponent of Marius.
• Issued infamous
proscriptions for the
slaughter of his enemies.
• Retired peacefully until
death in 78 B.C.
Gaius Marius
• Created Roman
professional army.
• Was of plebian origin.
• Active as military leader
until age 70.
• Opponent of Sulla.
• Defeated Jugurtha in
Africa, the Teutones &
Cimbri in the North
• Siezed power in Rome
and allowed murder of
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus
• Defeated 22 kings and 14
• At age 25 given sarcastic
nickname “Magnus” (“the
Great”) by Sulla.
• One of the First Triumvirate
including J. Caesar and
• Aided in the repression of
Spartacus’s slave rebellion.
• Cleansed Mediterranean of
Piracy in 67.
• Defeated by J. Caesar in 48
B.C. Later killed by assassin.
Marcus Licinius Crassus
• Richest man in Rome.
• Joined Sulla against
• Destroyed Spartacus’s
slave revolt.
• One of the three
Triumvirate members.
• Invaded Parthia in 53
B.C. where he was
defeated and killed with
his legions.
Gaius Julius Caesar
• Lived from 100 to 44 B.C.
• Literary, military, and
political genius.
• Member of the First
• Conquered Gaul.
• Marched on Rome and
established dictatorship.
• Assassinated on March,
15th, 44 B.C.
Marcus Tullius Cicero
• Rome’s greatest orator.
• Established himself with
by exposing Catiline’s
would-be coup ď état.
• Prolific writer and
publisher of letters,
speeches, philosophy,
and rhetorical works.
• Killed in Augustus’
Marcus Porcius Cato
• Uncompromising
defender of traditional
aristocratic regime.
• Ancestor was like-minded
Cato the Elder.
• Opposed the First
• Later nick-named
“Uticensis” for his suicide
in Utica, Africa in protest
of Caesar’s rule.
Gaius Octavianus
• Great-nephew and heir to
Julius Caesar
• Received title “Augustus”.
• Following Caesar’s
assassination, finally
gained control of Empire
by defeating Antony &
Cleopatra in 31 B.C.
• Ruled as first Roman
Emperor for 41 years.
• Founded Julio-Claudian
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