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Transcript
2nd Semester Practice Chemistry Final 2009-2010
Multiple Choice: Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. What happens to the volume of a gas during compression?
a. The volume increases.
b. The volume decreases.
c. The volume remains constant.
d. It is impossible to tell because all gases are different.
2. Name the compound Fe(NO3)2.
a. iron(II) nitrate
c. iron(I) nitrite
b. iron(II) nitrite
d. iron nitrate
3. What is the molar mass of (NH4)2SO4?
a. 114.09 g/mol
c. 128.06 g/mol
b. 118.34 g/mol
d. 132.13 g/mol
4. What is the pressure exerted by 1.2 mol of a gas with a temperature of 20.ºC and a volume of 9.5 L?
a. 0.030 atm
c. 3.0 atm
b. 1.0 atm
d. 30. atm
5. The pH of a basic solution is
a. less than 0.
c. greater than 7.
b. less than 7.
d. greater than 14.
6. Which of the following is a strong base?
a. NH3
c. NaOH
b. aniline
d. acetate ion
7. By which process do gases take the shape of their container?
a. evaporation
c. adhesion
b. expansion
d. diffusion
8. A gas sample with a mass of 12.8 g exerts a pressure of 1.2 atm at 15ºC and a volume of 3.94 L. What is
the molar mass of the gas?
a. 19 g/mol
c. 64 g/mol
b. 32 g/mol
d. 128 g/mol
9. According to the law of conservation of mass, the total mass of the reacting substances is
a. always more than the total mass of the products.
b. always less than the total mass of the products.
c. sometimes more and sometimes less than the total mass of the products.
d. always equal to the total mass of the products.
10. For the reaction CH4 + 2O2  CO2 + 2H2O, how many moles of carbon dioxide are produced from the
combustion of 87.5 g of methane?
a. 5.46 mol
c. 10.9 mol
b. 240 mol
d. 1.99 mol
11. To what volume should 450.0 mL of a 2.50 M solution of K2Cr2O7 be diluted to in order to obtain a final
solution of 2.90M?
a. 388 mL
c. 16 mL
b. 522 mL
d. 116 mL
12. What is the balanced equation when aluminum reacts with copper(II) sulfate?
a. Al + Cu2S  Al2S + Cu
c. Al + CuSO4  AlSO4 + Cu
b. 2Al + 3CuSO4  Al2(SO4)3 + 3Cu
d. 2Al + Cu2SO4  Al2SO4 + 2Cu
13. A solid produced by a chemical reaction in solution that separates from the solution is called
a. a precipitate.
c. a molecule.
b. a reactant.
d. the mass of the product.
14. An ideal gas is an imaginary gas
a. not made of particles.
b. that conforms to all of the assumptions of the kinetic theory.
c. whose particles have zero mass.
d. made of motionless particles.
15. An NaOH solution contains 1.90 mol of NaOH, and its concentration is 0.555 M. What is its volume?
a. 0.623 L
c. 1.05 L
b. 0.911 L
d. 3.42 L
16. Standard pressure is the pressure exerted by a column of mercury exactly
a. 273 mm high.
c. 760 cm high.
b. 760 mm high.
d. 1.00 m high.
17. The molar mass of NO2 is 46.01 g/mol. How many moles of NO2 are present in 114.95 g?
a. 0.4003 mol
c. 2.498 mol
b. 1.000 mol
d. 114.95 mol
18. Which of the following is not a reactant in a neutralization reaction?
a. H3O+ ion
b. OH– ion
c. an acid and a base in an aqueous solution
d. a salt
19. A salt is NOT
a. an ionic compound composed of a metal cation from a base.
b. an ionic compound composed of an anion from an acid.
c. a product of neutralization.
d. a spectator ion.
20. The volume of a sample of oxygen is 300.0 mL when the pressure is 1 atm and the temperature is 27.0ºC.
At what temperature is the volume 1.00 L and the pressure 0.500 atm?
a. 22.0ºC
c. 0.50 K
b. 45.0ºC
d. 227ºC
21. Which of the following is NOT a strong acid?
a. HNO3
c. H2SO4
b. CH3COOH
d. HCl
22. The formula for the hydronium ion is
a. H+.
c. H3O–.
+
b. H2O .
d. H3O+.
23. Determine the limiting reactant for the reaction 2Na + 2H2O  2NaOH + H2, if 5.22 moles of sodium
react with 4.44 moles of water?
a. sodium
c. sodium hydroxide
b. water
d. hydrogen gas
24. In writing an equation that produces hydrogen gas, the correct representation of hydrogen gas is
a. H.
c. H2.
b. 2H.
d. OH.
25. To balance a chemical equation, it may be necessary to adjust the
a. coefficients.
c. formulas of the products.
b. subscripts.
d. number of products.
26. What is the name of HNO3?
a. hydrogen nitrogen oxide
c. nitric acid
b. hydrochloric acid
d. nitrous acid
27. What is the hydroxide ion, [OH ], concentration of a solution whose pH is 4.60?
a. 2.5  10–5 M
c. 8.9  10–2 M
b. 6.6  10–1 M
d. 4.0  10–10 M
28. In the reaction 2Al2O3  4Al + 3O2, what is the mole ratio of aluminum to oxygen?
a. 10:6
c. 2:3
b. 3:4
d. 4:3
29. A Brønsted-Lowry base is a(n)
a. producer of OH– ions.
c. proton donor.
b. proton acceptor.
d. electron-pair acceptor.
30. According to the kinetic-molecular theory, particles of matter are in motion in
a. gases only.
c. solids, liquids, and gases.
b. gases and liquids.
d. solids only.
31. Bases taste
a. soapy.
c. sweet.
b. sour.
d. bitter.
–
32. How many Cl ions are present in 2.00 mol of KCl?
a. 1.20  1024 Cl- ions
c. 2.00 Cl- ions
b. 6.02  1024 Cl- ions
d. 0.5 Cl- ions
33. A balanced chemical equation allows one to determine the
a. mole ratio of any two substances in the reaction.
b. energy released in the reaction.
c. electron configuration of all elements in the reaction.
d. mechanism involved in the reaction.
34. For the reaction 2H2 + O2  2H2O, how many grams of water are produced from 6.00 mol of hydrogen?
a. 2.00 g
c. 54.0 g
b. 6.00 g
d. 108 g
35. For the reaction 2Zn + O2  2ZnO, how many grams of zinc oxide can be produced from 100. g each of
zinc and oxygen?
a. 100. g
c. 189 g
b. 124 g
d. 200. g
36. If a gas with an odor is released in a room, it quickly can be detected across the room because it
a. diffuses.
c. is compressed.
b. is dense.
d. condenses.
37. Convert the pressure 2.50 atm to kPa.
a. 1 kPa
c. 760 kPa
b. 253 kPa
d. 1000 kPa
38. The pressure of a sample of helium is 2.0 atm in a 200-mL container. If the container is compressed to 10
mL without changing the temperature, what is the new pressure?
a. 200 atm
c. 100 atm
b. 0.10 atm
d. 40. atm
39. The standard molar volume of a gas at STP is all of the following except
a. the volume occupied by 1 mol of the gas.
b. 22.4 g.
c. 22.4 L.
d. the volume occupied by one molar mass of the gas.
40. When pressure, volume, and temperature are known, the ideal gas law can be used to calculate
a. the chemical formula.
c. molar amount.
b. the ideal gas constant.
d. compressibility.
41. When hydrogen burns, water vapor is produced. The equation is 2H2(g) + O2(g)  2H2O(g). If 12 L of
oxygen are consumed, what volume of water vapor is produced?
a. 1 L
c. 12 L
b. 2 L
d. 24 L
42. Chlorine is produced by the reaction 2HCl(g)  H2(g) + Cl2(g). How many grams of HCl (36.5 g/mol)
must be used to produce 10 L of chlorine at STP?
a. 15.8 g
c. 32.6 g
b. 30.2 g
d. 36.5 g
43. The intermolecular forces between particles are
a. less effective in solids than in liquids.
c. equally effective in gases and in liquids.
b. more effective in gases than in solids.
d. more effective in liquids than in gases.
44. Which term best describes the process by which particles escape from the surface of a nonboiling liquid
and enter the gas state?
a. vaporization
c. surface tension
b. evaporation
d. aeration
45. What can happen when the average energy of a liquid's particles decreases?
a. vaporization
c. a disorderly arrangement
b. evaporation
d. freezing
46. Solids have a definite volume because
a. the particles do not have a tendency to change positions.
b. the particles are far apart.
c. they can be easily compressed.
d. the energy of the particles is high.
47. A substance whose water solution does NOT conduct a current is a(n)
a. polar substance.
c. electrolyte.
b. nonelectrolyte.
d. ionic substance.
48. Which of the following will dissolve most slowly?
a. large salt crystals in unstirred water
c. small salt crystals in unstirred water
b. large salt crystals in stirred water
d. small salt crystals in stirred water
49. The solubility of a solute depends on
a. the nature of the solute and the temperature of the solvent.
b. the nature of the solute only.
c. the temperature of the solvent only.
d. neither the nature of the solute nor the temperature of the solvent.
50. Pressure has the greatest effect on the solubility of
a. solids in liquids.
c. gases in gases.
b. liquids in liquids.
d. gases in liquids.
51. What is the molarity of a solution that contains 0.202 mol KCl in 7.98 L solution?
a. 0.0132 M
c. 0.459 M
b. 0.0253 M
d. 1.363 M
52. Bases react with
a. acids to produce salts and water.
c. water to produce acids and salts.
b. salts to produce acids and water.
d. neither acids, salts, nor water.
–4
53. What is the pH of a 10 M HCl solution?
a. 4
c. 8
b. 6
d. 10
54. What is the hydronium ion concentration of a solution whose pH is 7.30?
a. 1.4  10–11 M
c. 5.0  10–8 M
–8
b. 3.8  10 M
d. 7.1  10–6 M
55. Which of the following is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter?
a. chemical kinetics
c. reaction rate
b. thermochemistry
d. temperature
56. How much energy is absorbed as heat by 20. g of gold when it is heated from 25ºC to 35ºC? The specific
heat of gold is 0.13 J/g·ºC.
a. 26 J
c. 0.0006 J
b. 26 J/g·ºC
d. 0.0006 J/g·ºC
57. A system that changes spontaneously without an enthalpy change
a. is impossible.
c. becomes more disordered.
b. becomes more ordered.
d. releases heat.
58. What is the symbol for entropy?
a. T
c. G
b. H
d. S
59. What quantity predicts whether a reaction is spontaneous?
a. enthalpy
c. temperature
b. free energy
d. entropy
60. What attempts to explain chemical reactions and physical interactions of molecules?
a. chemical kinetics
c. thermodynamics
b. collision theory
d. thermochemistry
61. Activation energy is
a. the energy required to form the activated complex.
b. the net energy required to turn reactants into products.
c. the heat of reaction.
d. free energy.
62. If the pressure on the equilibrium system N2(g) + O2(g) 2NO(g) decreases,
a. the quantity of N2(g) decreases.
b. the quantity of NO(g) increases.
c. the quantity of NO(g) decreases.
d. the quantities in the system do not change.
63. If the temperature of the equilibrium system X + Y XY + 25 kJ decreases,
a. [X] decreases and [XY] increases.
b. [X] increases and [XY] decreases.
c. [X] decreases and [XY] decreases.
d. the concentrations of reactants and products do not change.
64. What does the 4 in
represent?
a. the mass number
c. the number of protons
b. the atomic number
d. the number of neutrons
65. Which of the following is the nuclear symbol for a beta particle?
a.
c.
b.
d.
66. Which of the following generally have the lowest penetrating ability?
a. alpha particles
c. gamma rays
b. beta particles
d. All have the same penetrating ability.
67. Which statement does NOT describe fission?
a. A neutron starts the process.
b. Several neutrons are emitted.
c. Stable, lightweight nuclei start the process.
d. A very heavy nucleus splits into several medium-weight nuclei.
68. Which of the following is a fission reaction?
a. hydrogen-2 and hydrogen-3 combining to form a helium-4 atom and a neutron
b. carbon-12 and hydrogen-1 combining to form a nitrogen-13 atom
c. uranium-235 absorbing a neutron and breaking into barium-141, krypton-92, and three
neutrons
d. a glucose molecule being metabolized with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water
69. Which of the following is the right side of the equation for dissolving K2S(s)?
a. 2K+(aq) + S2–(aq)
c. K2+(aq) + S2–(aq)
b. K22+(aq) + S2–(aq)
d. 2K(aq) + S(aq)
70. To be effective, a collision requires
a. sufficient energy.
b. a favorable orientation.
c. sufficient energy and a favorable orientation.
d. a reaction mechanism.
71. Raising the temperature of reactants in a system
a. increases the average kinetic energy of the molecules.
b. decreases the average kinetic energy of the molecules.
c. decreases the rate of collision of molecules.
d. has no effect on the average kinetic energy of molecules.
72. For most reactions, particles must
a. collide.
c. be at rest.
b. be properly oriented.
d. collide in the proper orientation.
73. Which of the following burns most slowly?
a. a large lump of coal
c. powdered coal
b. small pieces of coal
d. All of these burn at the same rate.
74. A sample of a substance burns more rapidly in pure oxygen than in air. Which factor is most responsible
for this high rate of reaction?
a. the pressure of the reactants
c. concentration of the reactants
b. temperature
d. surface area exposed to air
75. Catalysts generally affect chemical reactions by
a. increasing the temperature of the system.
b. increasing the surface area of the reactants.
c. providing an alternate pathway with a lower activation energy.
d. providing an alternate pathway with a higher activation energy.
76. Rate laws are determined by
a. studying reaction mechanisms.
b. calculating kinetic energy, frequency of collision, and temperature for a reaction.
c. applying collision theory to a reaction.
d. experiment.
77. At equilibrium,
a. all reactions have ceased.
b. only the forward reaction continues.
c. only the reverse reaction continues.
d. both the forward and reverse reactions continue.
78. In the equation
a. [Y] and [Z]
, what represents the concentrations of the reactants?
c.
b. [W] and [X]
d.
79. If the temperature of the equilibrium system X + Y
XY + 25 kJ decreases,
a. [X] decreases and [XY] increases.
b. [X] increases and [XY] decreases.
c. [X] decreases and [XY] decreases.
d. the concentrations of reactants and products do not change.
80. A nuclide is identified by
a. the number of protons in its nucleus.
b. the number of neutrons in its nucleus.
c. the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus.
d. None of the above
81. What does the 218 in polonium-218 represent?
a. the mass number
c. the mass defect
b. the atomic number
d. the neutron number
82. Balance the following equation:
____
a.
c.
b.
d.
83. Balance the following equation:
a.
b.
+

+ ____
c.
d.
84. Which of the following processes always decreases the number of protons by an even number?
a. fusion
c. alpha decay
b. beta decay
d. fission
85. Which of the following forms of radiation has the greatest penetrating power?
a. alpha particles
c. gamma rays
b. beta particles
d. positrons
86. Which of the following is the symbol for an alpha particle?
a.
c.
b.
d.
87. How many half-lives are required for three-fourths of the nuclei of one isotope in a sample to decay?
a.
c. 2
b.
d. 3
88. What is the half-life of an isotope if 125 g of a 500 g sample of the isotope remain after 3.0 years?
a. 1.5 years
c. 3.5 years
b. 2.5 years
d. 4.5 years
89. The kinetic-molecular theory explains the properties of solids, liquids, and gases in terms of the energy of
the particles and
a. gravitational forces.
c. diffusion.
b. the forces that act between the particles.
d. the mass of the particles.
90. According to the kinetic-molecular theory, particles of an ideal gas
a. attract each other but do not collide.
b. repel each other and collide.
c. neither attract nor repel each other but collide.
d. neither attract nor repel each other and do not collide.
91.The intermolecular forces between particles in a liquid can involve all of the following except
a. London dispersion forces.
c. dipole-dipole attractions.
b. hydrogen bonding.
d. gravitational forces.
92. All of the following are homogeneous mixtures except
a. soil.
c. gasoline.
b. a sugar-water solution.
d. a salt-water solution.
93. Which of the following does not increase the rate of dissolving a solid in water?
a. raising the temperature of the water
b. stirring the solution
c. using larger pieces of solid
d. crushing the solid
94. What is the pH of a 0.027 M KOH solution?
a. 6.47
c. 12.92
b. 12.43
d. 14.11
95. What is the hydronium ion concentration of a solution whose pH is 4.12?
a. 4.4  10–8 M
c. 6.4  10–5 M
–6
b. 5.1  10 M
d. 7.6  10–5 M
96. The greater the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter,
a. the higher the temperature is.
b. the lower the temperature is.
c. the more energy is absorbed by the sample in the form of heat.
d. the less energy is released by the sample in the form of heat.
97. Enthalpy change is the
a. pressure change of a system at constant temperature.
b. entropy change of a system at constant pressure.
c. temperature change of a system at constant pressure.
d. amount of energy absorbed or lost by a system as energy is the form of heat during a
process at constant pressure.
98. Which of the equations below is an example of a thermochemical equation?
a.
b.
c.
d.
99. What is the value of
at 200 K for a reaction in which
= –150 kJ/mol and
a. –250 kJ/mol
c. +250 kJ/mol
b. –450 kJ/mol
d. +450 kJ/mol
100. What is the title of your chemistry textbook?
a. Chemistry
c. Modern Chemistry
b. New Chemistry
d. Old Chemistry
= +2.00 kJ/(mol·K)?
2nd Semester Practice Chemistry Final 2009-2010
Answer Section
MULTIPLE CHOICE
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ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
C
B
D
A
D
D
B
C
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
1
4
5
1
4
4
4