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Transcript
Concert Orchestra Final Exam STUDY GUIDE
MUSIC THEORY
1. Key Signatures:
a. F MAJOR – 1 Flat (Bb)
b. C MAJOR – No sharps or flats
c. G MAJOR – 1 Sharp (F#)
d. D MAJOR – 2 Sharps (F# and C#)
2. The above are all MAJOR KEYS. Major keys can have sharps OR flats,
and Minor keys can have sharps OR flats, depending on the key.
3. Natural notes are NOT all the same distance apart.
a. B-C is a half step, E-F is a half step.
b. C MAJOR SCALE is:
i. C D E^F G A B^C
4. SHARPS (#) Raise any note by 1 half step
5. FLATS (b) Lower any note by 1 half step
6. Notes that are an OCTAVE higher or lower than an open string will cause
the open strings to vibrate (G, D, A, and C/E depending on instrument)
7. Rhythmic Values
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Whole Note (4 beats)
Dotted Half note (3 beats)
Half Note (2 beats)
Quarter Note (1 beat)
Eighth Note (1/2 beat)
Sixteenth Note (1/4 beat)
8. Rhythmic REST Values
a. Whole Rest (4 beats)
b. Dotted Half Rest (3 beats)
c. Half Rest (2 beats)
d. Quarter Rest (1 beat)
e. Eighth Rest (1/2 beat)
f. Sixteenth Rest (1/4 beat)
TECHNIQUE
1. Bow Strokes
a. Always start with bow ON THE STRING
b. The motion of the bow stroke starts from the back/shoulder so
SHOULDER should stay RELAXED
c. Good tone is caused by STRAIGHT BOW and RELAXED BOW
ARM
d. When you shift into higher positions with the left hand, your bow
should go CLOSER TO THE BRIDGE
e. DO NOT SQUEEZE the bow with the right hand. Be as relaxed
as possible
f. Start down bows from the Frog, and up bows from the Tip, if the
notes are long.
2. WATCH THE CONDUCTOR for information about
a. Tempo
b. Style
c. Dynamics
d. Entrances/Cutoffs
VOCABULARY
TEMPOS
Slowest:
Fastest:
BOWING STYLES
Detache
Legato
Staccato
Spiccato
Marcato
Markings
Slur:
Hook:
Fermata:
Similie:
SPEED WORDS:
Largo
Adagio
Andante
Moderato
Allegro
Presto
(loooong)
(slowly)
(walking)
(moderate/medium)
(Fast)
(Very Fast!!!)
Normal bowing (back and forth)
Smooth
Short/Separated
Bounced
Marked/Accented and short
Accelerando:
Ritardando:
VOLUME WORDS:
Crescendo:
Diminuendo:
getting faster (accelerating)
getting slower
Getting louder (growing)
Getting softer (decreasing
MUSIC HISTORY
Musical eras in order:
Baroque:
1600-1750
Classical:
1750-1825
Romantic: 1825 – 1900
20th Century: 1900-2000
MOZART (Don Giovanni)
- Mozart was from AUSTRIA
- Mozart was a CLASSICAL composer (1700s)
- Don Giovanni Dies at the end of the opera
- Other famous operas: Le Nozze de Figaro and The
Magic Flute
BEETHOVEN (Allegretto from Creatures of Prometheus)
- Beethoven was from GERMANY
- Beethoven was a CLASSICAL/ROMANTIC composer
BEATLES (Yesterday/Norwegian Wood)
- Beatles are from the UNITED KINGDOM
- “Yesterday” was from the album HELP!