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Concert Orchestra Final Exam STUDY GUIDE MUSIC THEORY 1. Key Signatures: a. F MAJOR – 1 Flat (Bb) b. C MAJOR – No sharps or flats c. G MAJOR – 1 Sharp (F#) d. D MAJOR – 2 Sharps (F# and C#) 2. The above are all MAJOR KEYS. Major keys can have sharps OR flats, and Minor keys can have sharps OR flats, depending on the key. 3. Natural notes are NOT all the same distance apart. a. B-C is a half step, E-F is a half step. b. C MAJOR SCALE is: i. C D E^F G A B^C 4. SHARPS (#) Raise any note by 1 half step 5. FLATS (b) Lower any note by 1 half step 6. Notes that are an OCTAVE higher or lower than an open string will cause the open strings to vibrate (G, D, A, and C/E depending on instrument) 7. Rhythmic Values a. b. c. d. e. f. Whole Note (4 beats) Dotted Half note (3 beats) Half Note (2 beats) Quarter Note (1 beat) Eighth Note (1/2 beat) Sixteenth Note (1/4 beat) 8. Rhythmic REST Values a. Whole Rest (4 beats) b. Dotted Half Rest (3 beats) c. Half Rest (2 beats) d. Quarter Rest (1 beat) e. Eighth Rest (1/2 beat) f. Sixteenth Rest (1/4 beat) TECHNIQUE 1. Bow Strokes a. Always start with bow ON THE STRING b. The motion of the bow stroke starts from the back/shoulder so SHOULDER should stay RELAXED c. Good tone is caused by STRAIGHT BOW and RELAXED BOW ARM d. When you shift into higher positions with the left hand, your bow should go CLOSER TO THE BRIDGE e. DO NOT SQUEEZE the bow with the right hand. Be as relaxed as possible f. Start down bows from the Frog, and up bows from the Tip, if the notes are long. 2. WATCH THE CONDUCTOR for information about a. Tempo b. Style c. Dynamics d. Entrances/Cutoffs VOCABULARY TEMPOS Slowest: Fastest: BOWING STYLES Detache Legato Staccato Spiccato Marcato Markings Slur: Hook: Fermata: Similie: SPEED WORDS: Largo Adagio Andante Moderato Allegro Presto (loooong) (slowly) (walking) (moderate/medium) (Fast) (Very Fast!!!) Normal bowing (back and forth) Smooth Short/Separated Bounced Marked/Accented and short Accelerando: Ritardando: VOLUME WORDS: Crescendo: Diminuendo: getting faster (accelerating) getting slower Getting louder (growing) Getting softer (decreasing MUSIC HISTORY Musical eras in order: Baroque: 1600-1750 Classical: 1750-1825 Romantic: 1825 – 1900 20th Century: 1900-2000 MOZART (Don Giovanni) - Mozart was from AUSTRIA - Mozart was a CLASSICAL composer (1700s) - Don Giovanni Dies at the end of the opera - Other famous operas: Le Nozze de Figaro and The Magic Flute BEETHOVEN (Allegretto from Creatures of Prometheus) - Beethoven was from GERMANY - Beethoven was a CLASSICAL/ROMANTIC composer BEATLES (Yesterday/Norwegian Wood) - Beatles are from the UNITED KINGDOM - “Yesterday” was from the album HELP!