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World History
Chapter 2 sec. 1 pp. 63-66
Questions p. 66
Europeans by the 1400s were trying to find new ways to get to Asia for spices like cinnamon,
cloves, nutmeg, and pepper, to preserve food, add flavor to dried and salted meat and to make
medicines and perfumes, Most of these spices came for the Moluccas, an Island chain in Indonesia!
Henry the Navigator Prince Henry of Portugal, had the spirit of exploration, gathered scientists,
cartographers, and other experts. They redesigned ships, prepared maps, and trained captains and
crews for long voyages. He sent out Bartholomeu Dias who rounded the Cape of Africa, Into the
Indian Ocean, became known as the Cape of Good Hope.
Vasco da Gama 1497 continued on from the Cape of Good Hope, after 10 months he reached the
spice port of Calicut in India. On the voyage home many sailors died of hunger, thirst, and scurvy.
Christopher Columbus Italian sailor who tried to get Portugal to support his sail westward to
eventually reach the East Indies, Portugal said no, so Columbus went to Spain and Ferdinand and
Isabella agreed to finance his trip Set out on August 3rd 1492 and October 12 landed in the West
Indies. Columbus thought he had reached Asia, not so!
Vasco Nunez de Balboa 1513 Spanish explorer along with the local natives, went through the
Jungles of Panama and saw, for the first time, for a European a huge body of water he called the
South Sea.
Ferdinand Magellan September 20 1519 left Spain with five ships and a crew form Europe, Asia,
and Africa, in an attempt to find a way around the Americas. More than one mutiny was put down
by Magellan, when they reached South America they carefully sailed along the coast looking for a
way to the South Sea; In November of 1520 they entered the “Strait of Magellan” and emerged into
the “peaceful” Pacific Ocean. Most sailors wanted to head home after a year at sea but Magellan
believed Asia was close, for four months they sailed before coming to the Philippines. Magellan got
involved in a dispute on the Island and was killed March of 1520. Finally September 8, 1522 almost
3 years after they left the remaining sailors reached Seville Spain. First people to Circumnavigate
the world.
Cartographer Map Makers created more accurate maps during the 1400’s
Astrolabe instrument developed by the Ancient Greeks and perfected by the Arabs to determine
latitude at sea
Caravel ship that combined the square sails of European ships and the Arab lateen or triangular
sails, they adapted the sternpost rudder and numerous masts of Chinese ships, new rigging made it
easier and possible to sail into the wind, they also added improved weapons.
Scurvy a disease caused by lack of vitamin C in a sailor’s diet, in their long voyages at sea, most
captains in later days stocked lemons to help slow this disease
[3] Why did European nations seek a sea route to Asia? The wanted to bypass the existing
trading routes that were controlled by foreign powers and gain direct access to the spices and
other goods of Asia.
[4] Describe the routes taken by explores for Portugal during the 1400s & early 1500s- Portugal
claimed land on the North African coast and then explored Africa’s west coast and then
explored Africa’s west coast south around the tip of Africa. The Portuguese then sailed to the
west coast of India. How did this affect Portugal’s trade? Portugal seized key ports around the
Indian Ocean, including highly profitable spice ports.
[5] Why did Columbus decide to sail westward? He wanted to reach the Indies by sailing west
across the Atlantic, thus around the world. What influence did his voyages have on other
explorers? Columbus found previously unknown continents and expanded Spain’s trading
and exploration rights.
Line of Demarcation- 1493 Pope Alexander VI created a line dividing the non-European world, It
ran from the tip of Greenland South in the Atlantic, and it gave Spain all areas west and Portugal all
areas east
Pedro Cabral- Portuguese captain blown off course by a storm in 1500, landed on present day
Brazil and claimed it for Portugal, which Brazil is East of the Line of Demarcation
King Henry VII 1497 sent John Cabot a Venetian to find a northern passage around the Americas,
Cabot found rich fishing ground off Newfoundland, which he claimed for the English.
Jacques Cartier explored the St. Lawrence River for the French
Henry Hudson explored the river that later bared his name for the Dutch, None found a Northwest