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Transcript
English Writing (sentence structure)
英文句型寫作 (一)
日四應二乙
黃麗莉老師
Unit one
• Understanding Sentence Basics:
• What Is a Sentence?
• A sentence is a group of words that expresses
a complete thought. The words in a sentences
are in a special order.
Unit one
• Words, sentences, paragraphs, and essays are
all related.
•
letter
•
•
word
•
•
sentence
Unit one
•
•
paragraph
essay
•
Unit one
• Activity 1
• Unscramble the words below to make correct
English sentences.
• 1. is not/very big/my family/.
• 2. only /four people/ there are/.
• 3. very much/ I / my family/ love/.
• 4. I/ two parents/ have/.
Unit one
Activity 2 Writing Simple Sentences: A Diagnostic
Write five to eight sentences about your family.
Topic: My family
1._______________________________
2._______________________________
3. _______________________________
4. _______________________________
5. _______________________________
Unit one
• In English, there are three ways to end a
sentence:
• 1. with a period (.)
• 2. with a question mark (?)
• 3. with an exclamation (!)
Unit one
Using Capital Letters
Proper Nouns
In English, the name of a specific person, place, or
thing always begins with a capital letter. These types of
words are called proper nouns.
Nelson Mandela is the name of a specific person.
San Francisco is the name of a specific place.
Mona Lisa is the name of a specific thing.
Unit one
Common Nouns
Common nouns do not begin with a capital letter.
They begin with a lowercase letter. Some examples of
Common nouns are cars, computer, garage, snow, and
television.
Unit one
• More Capital Letters
• In English, many other kinds of words begin with capital
letters.
•
•
•
•
•
•
1. Days of the week
Incorrect: My birthday is on monday.
Correct: My birthday is on Monday.
2. Months
Incorrect: The shortest month of the year is february.
Correct: The shortest month of the year is February.
Unit one
• 3. Languages
• Incorrect: Sarah speaks hindi.
• Correct: Sarah speaks Hindi.
• 4. Countries
• Incorrect: My father is from thailand.
• Correct: My father is from Thailand.
Unit one
Unit one
• Activity 3 Geography Quiz
• Unscramble the words below to write
questions about geography. Then write the
answers in complete sentences. Be careful to
use capital letters and end punctuation.
• 1. what /the capital/ of brazil/ is
• Question: What is the capital of Brazil?
• Answer : The capital of Brazil is Brasilia.
Unit one
•
•
•
•
•
•
2. is/ what city/ the white house in
Question:________________________
Answer: ________________________
3. what country/ the nile river in/ is
Question:________________________
Answer: ________________________
Unit one
•
•
•
•
•
•
4. what/ the biggest city/ in mexico/ is
Question:________________________
Answer: ________________________
5. Where/are/ the andes mountains
Question:________________________
Answer: ________________________
Unit one
• Prepositions of Place ----- at, on, and in
• At= an exact or specific locations
• She works at First United Bank.
• On= a street (without a house number)
• The bank is on Great Street.
Unit one
• In= a city, state, country or region
• The bank is in San Diego.
Exclamation Points
Simple Fact: It is snowing.
With surprise: It is snowing!
Unit two
• Connecting Sentences
• Conjunction (連接詞): 是用來連接單字,片語,
或子句的單字.
• 可分類為:
• A. 對等連接詞
• B: 從屬連接詞
Unit two
• A: 對等連接詞 (coordination conjunction):
• for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (FANBOYS)
• B: 從屬連接詞 (subordination conjunction):
• after, as, although, because, before, if…
Unit two
• 單字對等連接詞:and, or, but, yet, nor等,
其前後要平行對稱。
• 例:1. The people in my town are friendly
and hardworking. (平行形容詞)
•
2. Did she leave by train or by car? (平行
介系詞片語)
•
3. He studied hard, but he failed. (平行子
句) .
Unit two
• 從屬連接詞引導從屬子句:
• 副詞子句:功用等於副詞,主要用以修飾
動詞或整個子句.
• (a) 表示“雖然”、“縱然
• 1. Even though it is hard work, I enjoy it.
• 2. Although she has earned a lot of money,
she is not happy.
Unit two
• (b) 表達“因為”:
• 例:1. Since you are going, I will go too.
•
2. My sister didn’t go to school, for she
had a flu.
•
3. You should stop drinking in that it’s
harmful to your health.
Unit two
• (c) 表達“目的”:
• 例:1. I prepared some food for him so that
he wouldn’t get hungry.
•
2. he worked hard in order that he can
get a promotion.
Unit two
• (d) 表達“條件”:
1. Unless you study harder, you will fail.
• 2. If it rains, we will stay at home.
• 3. Once she arrives, we will start the party.
Unit Three
• Sentence Types: Simple and Compound
• A: Simple Sentences
•
A simple sentence usually has one subject
and one verb.
•
She studies hard everyday.
•
A simple sentence can have more than one
subject and more than one verbs in these
combinations:
Unit three
2 subjects + 1 verb:
• Japan and Germany import oil from Saudi
•
•
Subjects
+ Verb
• Arabia.
•
●
Unit three
•
●
1 subjects + 2 verbs:
• Japan imports oil and exports cars.
Subject
+
Verbs
Unit three
•
●
2 subjects + 2 verbs:
• Japan and Germany import oil and export
•
• cars.
Subjects
+
Verbs
Unit three
• Compound Sentences
•
A compound sentence is two sentences
joined by a connecting word, such as and, but,
or , so, nor, yet. A compound sentence has
two subject- verb combinations.
Unit three
•
★
•
Japan imports oil, and Saudi Arabia imports
Subject #1+ Verb# 1
subject #2 + verb # 2
• vegetables.
•
•
★
Sue watched TV, so she did not finish her
Subject #1+ Verb# 1
homework.
subject #2 + verb # 2
Unit three
• John likes to eat Italian food, but he prefers to
• Subject #1+ Verb# 1
subject #2 + verb # 2
• eat Chinese food.
• Note: Compound sentences always use a
comma (,) and a connecting word ( and,
but ,so) to connecting two sentence.
Unit three
• Activity 1 Combine two simple sentences into
one sentence with a comma and a connecting
word. Use and, but or so.
• 1. Mary lives in Turkey. Abdul lives in Kuwait.
• ____________________________________
• 2. The weather was cold. I stayed indoors.
• ____________________________________
Unit three
• 3. We go to school every day. We play tennis on
weekends.
• ____________________________________
• 4. John and Kelly are related. They are not brother
and sister.
• __________________________________
• 5. The restaurant manager was happy. He gave all the
servers a raise.
• _________________________________________
Unit three
• Non-count nouns
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Count nouns
singular
money
ice
information
clothing
vocabulary
bread
honest
plural
a dollar
twenty dollars
a number
numbers
an ice cube ice cubes
a slice of bread slices of bread
an assignment three assignments
a blue shirt blue shirts
a word
fifteen words
Unit4
Writing about the Past
Simple Past Tense
When you talk about actions in the past, you use the simple
past tense.
Simple Past Tense of Be: Statements
Verb be
I was
we were
you were
you (plural) were
he/she/it was
they were
Incorrect: You are at home yesterday.
Incorrect: You was at home yesterday.
Correct: You were at home yesterday.
Simple Past Tense of Be: Questions
Verb be
Was I…?
Were you…?
Was he/she/it…?
Were we…?
Were you (plural)…?
Were they…?
Incorrect: Was they students last year?
Incorrect: they were students last year?
Correct: Were they students last year?
Simple Past Tense of Regular Verbs: Statements
Verb live
I lived
we lived
you lived
you (plural) lived
he/she/it lived
they lived
Incorrect: Janet visit her parents yesterday.
Correct: Janet visited her parents yesterday.
Simple Past Tense of Regular Verbs: Questions
Verb live
Did I live…?
Did we live…?
Did you live…?
Did you (plural) live…?
Did he/she/it live…?
Did they live…?
Incorrect: Do Daphne walk to the bus stop this morning?
Incorrect: Did Daphne walked to the bus stop this morning?
Correct: Did Daphne walk to the bus stop this morning?
Time Phrases with the Simple Past Tense
We use certain words and phrases in a sentence to help show
that something happened in the past. Include:
last night, last week, this morning, yesterday, (two minutes) ago
You can put these time phrases at the beginning or the end of a
sentence. Avoid using them in the middle of a sentence.
Incorrect: Jason last night washed his hair.
Correct:
last night Jason washed his hair.
Incorrect: Did she yesterday see a movie?
Correct: Did she see a movie yesterday?
Irregular Simple Past Tense Verbs
Some verbs are irregular. This means that they take a different form in
the simple past tense. Here are some common irregular verbs.
feel
→felt
Buy → bought
go
→went run
cut
→ cut
have →had
do
→ did
leave →left
be
→was/were
draw → drew
pay
→paid
send
→sent
→ran
sit
→sat
ride
→rode
speak →spoke
say
→said
teach →taught
make →made see
→sew
write →wrote
Incorrect: I writed several novels last year.
Correct: I wrote several novels last year.
Making Be Negative
When you want to make a negative sentence with be, you use the
word not. Not comes after the form of be.
Verb be
I was not
we were not
you were not
you(plural) were not
he/she/it was not they were not
Using Contractions:
It is important to remember that contractions might be too informal
for academic writing. Ask your instructor if using contractions in
this course is acceptable.
Activity 1
1.lived (negative)/. /in Johannesburg in 2002/ Carmen
=Carmen did not live in Johannesburg in 2002.
2.Ling/engineering/. /studied (negative)
=Ling did not study engineering.
3.last year/him/Humberto’s parents/visited (negative)/.
= Humberto’s parents did not visit him last year.
4.large brains/had (negative)/. /Dinosaurs
= Dinosaurs did not have large brains.
5.!/John/ helped (negative)/me/with my homework
=John did not help me with my homework!
6.Edda/the letter/. /sent (negative)/to her parents
=Edda did not send the letter to her parents.
7.spoke (negative)/. /Karl/with his parents/last night
=Karl did not speak with his parents last night.
8.I/my homework/did (negative)/. /yesterday
=I did not do my homework yesterday.
9.Janiel and Yosemy/last night/. /left (negative)/the party early
=Janiel and Yosemy did not leave the party early last night.
10.went (negative)/My brother/to the grocery store/last Saturday/.
=My brother did not go to the grocery store last Saturday.
Compound Sentences with But
The connector but indicates a contrast between the ideas it
connects. It has two separate subject-verb combinations.
Sue likes Japanese food, but her husband doesn’t.
I enjoy reading books, but my sister enjoys watching TV.
NOTE: Sometimes but is not a connector. It is preposition that
means the same as the word except .
We eat all of the food in restaurant but pasta.
Compound Sentences with And
1.And is used to join two (or more) words that are in the same
grammar category (or group).
Example A: And join two nouns and makes the subject of the
sentence plural.
My mother plants flower in the garden.
My father plants flower in the garden.
= My mother and my father plant flower in the garden.
Example B: And join two nouns and makes the object of the
sentence plural
Paul drinks coffee in the restaurant.
Paul drinks tea in the restaurant.
= Paul drink coffee and tea in the restaurant.
Example C: And join two verbs in a sentence.
Bruce sings at the party.
Bruce dances at the party.
= Bruce sing and dance at the party.
Example D: And join two adjectives in a sentence.
The food is cheap.
The food is delicious.
= The food is cheap and delicious.
2.And is also used to from compound sentence. A compound
sentence is two sentence join by a comma and a connecting
word. A compound sentence has two subject-verb combinations.
Example A:
Patch lives in Kaohsiung.
Patch studies at Cheng Shiu University.
=Patch lives in Kaohsiung, and She studies at Cheng Shiu
University.
Compound Sentences with So
The first subject-verb combination gives the “cause”, and the
second subject-verb combination gives the “result”.
She was sick , so she did not go to work.
(cause)
(result)
Sally was cold, so she put on a sweater.
(cause)
(result)
NOTE: So has several other meanings. A comma is not possible
with these other meanings.
1.So = an adverb that means very or extremely.
The man is so cool.
2.So = a connector that means in order to; it is a short form for so
that; there is no different in meaning
She left the party early so she could catch the last train.
=She left the party early so that she could catch the last train.
3.So = a comma word at the beginning of a statement or question
to continue a conversation; not used in academic writing
Carlos: We went to the beach all day yesterday.
Maria: So what time did you finally get home last night?
Activity 2
Write C (for cause) or R (for result)
1a. C I was thirsty.
b. R I drank three glasses of water.
= I was thirsty, so I drank three glasses of water.
2a. R We did not play tennis.
b. C It rained very hard.
= It rained very hard, so we did not play tennis.
3a. R Mrs. Lopez took Ana to the doctor.
b. C Ana was very sick.
= Ana was very sick, so Mrs. Lopez took Ana to the doctor.
4a. C The audience loved the show.
b. R The audience applauded wildly.
= The audience loved the show, so they applauded wildly.
5a. C Jonathan did not feel well.
b. R Jonathan did not go to the party.
= Jonathan did not feel well, so he did not go to the party.
6a. R I did not buy the DVD.
b. C The DVD was very expensive.
= The DVD was very expensive, so I did not buy the it.
7a. C The plane did not leave on time.
b. R We arrived at our destination late.
= The plane did not leave on time, so we arrived at our
destination late.
8a. C Angela forgot to set her alarm clock.
b. R Angela woke up late.
= Angela forgot to set her alarm clock, so she woke up late.
Activity 3
1.
Write what you think is
happening based on what
you see. Be sure to use
the connector so and the
present progressive on
your compound sentences.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Activity 4
1.horrible
2.century
3.to communicate
4.excellent
5.to continue
6.proud
7.province
8.librarian
9.separate
10.to graduate
very bad news
one hundred years
to share information
the best
to not stop
grade of 100%
region
books
apart
to complete school
11.beginning
12.manager
13.original
14.to arrive
15.to scare
initial
boss
not a copy
to come to a place
to scream
Activity 5
1.before/first
2.to/for
3.to/at
4.information/
communication
5.about/for
6.abandon/excel
7.take/make
8.excellence/
communication
9.freedom/
beginning
10.supposed/excited
1.the first thing to do
2.a trip to Puerto Rico
3.arrive at the supermarket
4.share information about the problem
5.have a question about you homework
6.excel all hope
7.make a decision
8.effective communication
9.the freedom to do anything that you want to do
10.be excited about a new class
Unit5
Describing Actions
Using the Present Progressive
The present progressive tense is often used to describe actions
that are happening right now.
I
you
he/she/it
we
you (plural)
they
am eating
are eating
is eating
are eating
are eating
are eating
Some verbs in English do not usually take the progressive tense
because they are not action verbs. Include: be, have, see, love,
believe, own, and want
Activity 1
John is watching a movie.
Milk has a large amount of
vitamin D.
Oranges contain a lot of vitamin C.
I hope that will grow quickly.
Bolivia is a landlocked country in
South America.
Ann is doing her homework.
That blouse is the perfect color for
you.
Ajman is a part of the United Arab
Emirates.
I a planting marigold seeds.
She hopes they will arrive on time.
Arizona is a part of the United
States.
It matches your pants and your
handbag
Valia is having guests for dinner
tonight.
Switzerland is a landlocked
country in Europe.
Activity 2
Identify the type of sentence as S (simple) or C (compound) .If
the sentence is compound, insert a comma where necessary.
1. S My brother and I went hiking and fishing last weekend.
2. C The motorcycle is in the garage, and the car is in the driveway.
3. S Harry and Darlene went to the picnic yesterday and the party
last night.
4. C I do not know the answer to the question, so I will ask the
teacher.
5. S How many time have you visited Europe and Asia?
6. C There are many great places to visit in this city, so you can’t
see them all in one day.
7. S The main agricultural product from the countries in that area
of Central Asia is cotton.
8. C A noun is a word like sandwich, and a verb is an action
word such as eat.
9. C Lisana works for a computer company, but she does not
have computer engineering degree.
10. S Where did you get those beautiful earrings and bracelets?
11. C The capital of Sudan is khartoum, and it is the most
populates city in the country.
12. C The traffic was terrible, so Lance missed his plane.
Common Adverbs of Manner
Adverbs usually Describe verbs.
I write this e-mail quickly.
Viola talks to her friends loudly.
The adverbs describe how the action is done.
How do you write this e-mail? Quickly.
How does Viola talk to her friends? Loudly.
NOTE: Adverbs of manner usually end in –ly and usually follow
the verb.
Some common adverbs of manner that describe actions:
quickly, easily, nervously, carefully, happily, slowly, suddenly,
Silently, correctly, fast*, hard*, well*
*These adverbs do not use the –ly form
Activity 3
Write an adverb that describes the action of the underlined verb.
1.Joann is studying
in the library.
2.She jumped on the bus
because it was raining.
3.Mary Ann spoke
at the conference.
4.David is doing
in this class. He never studies!
5.Norma cried
during the movie.
6.Leslie typed the letter
. I thought she would never finish.
7.Nathalie read the directions
. She did not want to make a
mistake.
8.I had a cold, so I did not play
at the soccer game last
week.
9.Maria and Faisal passed the test
because they studied very
for it.
10. Lawrence opened the door
because he was afraid.
Activity 4
There are 10 mistakes in the paragraph: 2 mistakes with compound
sentences, 2 mistakes with adverbs, 2 mistakes with verbs,2mistkes
with adjectives, and 2 mistakes with capitalization. Find and
correct the errors.
is
A small brown squirrel climbing a tree.
He looks like a young squirrel. His tail
is twitching nervously, and his nose is
quickly
moving quick. I think he is looking for
food. Now the squirrel brown is on a
long tree branch.
He wants to jump to another tree.
The squirrel hears something, so he
He
looks down. he is coming down
from the tree tall. Someone dropped
a few pieces of chocolate chip
are
cookie. These pieces lying on the
The
grass. the squirrel is walking toward
the food, and he is inspecting it. He
is putting it in his mouth. His tail is
rapidly
moving rapid. The little brown
squirrel is now eating happily.
Activity 5
1.safari/crowd
2.have/feel
3.about/on
4.dirty/delicious
5.audience/art
6.soda/lion
7.machine/cleaner
8.trup/family
9.room/monkey
10.powerful/nervous
1.to be in a crowd
2.feel very lucky
3.to be worried about
4.to wash dirty clothes at the laundry
5.to see an art exhibit
6.a strong lion
7.a vacuum cleaner
8.at the end of the trip
9.an empty room
10.to get nervous about something
Simple
One independent clause
She did the work well.
Compound
Two or more independent clauses
She did the work well, and she was paid well.
One independent clause and one or more
dependent clauses
Because she did the work well, she was paid well.
Two or more independent clauses and one or more
dependent clauses
Because she did the work well, she was paid well,
and she was satisfied.
Complex
Compoundcomplex
分詞構句
1.分詞構句通常置於句首
2.在分詞構句和主句之間需加逗號
A.主句和副詞子句的主詞相同時,將附屬連接詞與主詞去除,
動詞改為進行式
1.While I was walking along the street, I come across him.
= Walking along the street, I come across him.
2.As he is ill, he can’t attend the meeting.
=Being ill, he can’t attend the meeting.
3.As I don’t know what to do, I telephone to the police.
=Not knowing what to do, I telephone to the police.
4.After I had seen my brother, I felt much relieved.
=Having seen my brother, I felt much relieved.
5.Though he hadn’t found his key, he still had the money with
him.
=Not having found his key, he still had the money with him.
6.Because the book is written in an easy style, it has any reader.
=(Being) Written in an easy style, it has any reader.
7.As he has been praised too much, he becomes too proud.
=(Having been) Praised too much, he becomes too proud.
8.After Kat graduated from college, she worked in an internet
corporate.
=Graduating from college, Kat worked in an internet corporate.
B.主句和副詞子句的主詞不同時,此時的“分詞構句”稱“獨
立
分詞構句”。主詞保留,將附屬連接詞去除,動詞改為進行式
1.When school was over, the boys went home.
=School being over, the boys went home.
2.After the sun set, we arrived at the station.
=The sun setting, we arrived at the station.
3.As my homework has been finished, I have nothing else to do.
=My homework (having been) finished, I have nothing else to do.
4.As his life was threatened by the secret police, the human-right
activist can’t help escaping from his country.
=His life (being) threatened by the secret police, the human-right
activist can’t help escaping from his country.
C.連接詞加分詞構句,為了明確表示原來引導副詞子句的連接
詞的意義,所以將原本在分詞構句中已去除的從屬連接詞予以
保留
1.When he speaks English, he often makes mistakes.
=When speaking English, he often makes mistakes.