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Michael Copeland
Jake Reay
What is Non-Verbal Communication?
The process of communication in which messages are transmitted in the form
of wordless cues between people.
Researchers have yet to come to a clear consensus on how much non-verbal
cues represent in overall communication, some researchers theorize as little as
60%, and others as much as 93%.
Present Theory
Dr. Albert Mehrabian [muh-ray-bian], author of Silent Messages, conducted several
studies on nonverbal communication. He found that
7% of any message is conveyed through words
38% through certain vocal elements
and 55% through nonverbal elements (facial expressions, gestures, posture, etc).
Subtracting the 7% for actual vocal content leaves one with the 93% statistic.
• Often times non-verbal communication is mistakenly referred to as body
language (kinesics)
So What is Encompassed in Non-Verbal
• Body Language (Kinesics)
• Use of Voice (Paralanguage)
• Distance (Proxemics)
• Touch (Haptics)
• Use of Time (Chronemics)
• Clothing (Artifactics)
Present Theory
What Does Your Body Say About You?
• Body Language is a physical form of non-verbal communication. It consists
Body posture
Facial expressions
Eye movements
Body Language
• Interpretation of body language may provide insight into the attitude of
another individual. Interpretation of body language can be used to discern.
Brief Exercise
• Following will be a series of slides, write down what you think the
individual’s body language says about how they feel.
• Boredom
• Confusion
• Frustration
• Relaxed
• Elated, joyous, excited
Body Language
• With only static images, many people can tell what emotion is being felt
without any words being spoken.
The Non-Verbal in the Verbal
Speech on its own contains non-verbal elements
• Voice Quality
• Rate of Speech
• Pitch
• Volume
• Speaking Style
• Rhythm
• Intonation
• Stress
Present Theory & Physical Components
Proxemics - How we use the space around us – our environment.
Intimate distance, up to 18”, is appropriate for private conversations between close
Personal distance, from 18”- 4’, is the space in which casual conversation occurs.
Social distance, from 4’ – 12’, is where impersonal business such as job interviews
are conducted.
Public distance, is anything more than 12’
Present Theory & Physical Components
Present Theory & Physical Components
Present Theory & Physical Components
Past Theories
• Emotional responses developed out of necessity (Charles Darwin)
• Emotional expression is universal (Paul Ekman)
• Stimuli provoke innate reaction
• Reactive expression determines experiences
Current Research
• Can non-verbal cues be used to determine if someone is being truthful?
• In what ways can we use non-verbal cues to spot a lie?
Unintentional Gestures and Micro Expressions
Unintentional gestures such as:
• Eye, or brow rubbing
• Lip touching
• Head, ear or neck scratching
• Crossing arms
• Locking fingers
• Covering private parts
• Distancing
• Shoulder shrug
• Dilation of pupils
• And many more
Current Research
Paul Ekman
Current Research
Paul Ekman, Professor Emeritus in Psychology at UCSF, is
the researcher and author best known for furthering our
understanding of nonverbal behavior, encompassing
facial expressions and gestures. In addition to his own
distinguished academic career, Ekman has authored more
than 100 published articles and holds several honorary
doctoral degrees. A pre-eminent psychologist and codiscoverer of micro expressions with Friesen, Haggard
and Isaacs, Ekman was named by the American
Psychological Association as one of the most influential
psychologists of the 20th century, and TIME Magazine
(2009) hailed him as one of the 100 most influential people
in the world.
Types of Expression
• Macro: normal expressions usually last between ½-second and 4 seconds.
They often repeat, and fit with what is said and the sound of the person’s
• Micro: These are very brief, usually lasting between 1/15 and 1/25 of a
second. They often display a concealed emotion and are the result of
suppression or repression.
• False: A deliberately-made simulation of an emotion not being felt.
• Masked: A false expression made to cover a macro expression.
Current Research
Micro Expressions
• Micro expressions are very brief facial expressions, lasting only a fraction
of a second. They occur when a person either deliberately or unconsciously
conceals a feeling. Seven emotions have universal signals:
Current Research
The Seven Universal Human Emotions
• Sadness
• Anger
• Surprise
• Disgust
• Fear
• Contempt
• Happiness
Current Research and Psychological Components
Current Research & Physical Components
Video Intermission!
Psychological Components
• Increased amount of stressors for hearing impaired
• Uncorrected hearing loss could mean reduced cognitive function
• Greater chance of depression like symptoms
• Higher comorbidity of hearing loss and mental disorders
• Stigma
Solutions / Treatment
“Let’s Face It!” Program – Teaches children with Autism to recognize facial
expression and emotion. Still developing technology as this is an area with great
potential for growth.
Body language coach – A specialist who trains individuals to control their own body
language and expression. Commonly employed by politicians and celebrities.
Cochlear implants
Adapted therapy
Recognition Training
Personal Experiences
Bond, B., (2011) PsychSmart Canadian Edition
Cynthia D. Mulrow, Christine Aguilar, James E. Endicott, Michael R. Tuley, Ramon Velez, Walter S. Charlip, Mary C. Rhodes, Judith
A. Hill, Louis A. DeNino; Quality-of-Life Changes and Hearing ImpairmentA Randomized Trial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1990
Eldik, T.(2005). Mental Health Problems of Dutch Youth With Hearing Loss as Shown on the Youth Self Report. American Annals of
the Deaf 150(1), 11-16. Gallaudet University Press. Retrieved April 1, 2014, from Project MUSE database
Joanna Stith, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, LSLS Cert. AVT; Arlene Stredler-Brown, CCC-SLP, CED; Pat Greenway; and Gary Kahn, M.D.,
TeleCITE: Telehealth—A Cochlear Implant Therapy Exchange, The Volta Review, Volume 112(3), Winter 2012, 393^02
Richard P. Halgin and Derek J. McEntee, Psychotherapy With Hearing-Impaired Clients, Professional Psychology: Research and
Practice 1986, Vol. 17. No. 5, 466-472
Wilson, B. S., Finley, C. C., & al, e. (1991). Better speech recognition with cochlear implants. Nature, 352(6332), 236-8. Retrieved
Hogan, K., Stubbs, R. (2003). Can't get Through 8 Barriers to Communication. Grenta, LA: Pelican Publishing Company.
Nonverbal Communication Theories. (2009). In the Encyclopedia of Communication Theory. doi: 10.4135/9781412959384.n262
Nonverbal Communication. Entry in The Concise Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science(2004).
FFast, J. (1970). Body Language- The Essential Secrets of Non-verbal Communication. New York,NY: MJF Book.
Secrets of body language Directed by: James Millar A & E Television Networks : 2009