Download Non-Verbal Communication

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Gesture wikipedia, lookup

Body language wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
The Form of the
Message
Chapter 2- Part 2
Non-Verbal Communication & Manual Language
Nonverbal Communication
• The transmission of messages w/o spoken
words
– Body language…
• Smell, Taste, Touch
• Proxemics & Kinesics
– gender, status, culture & space
– types of gestures
– Gesture systems...
– Sign languages…
• analyzing signs
– Paralanguage…
– Speech substitutes….
Body Language
• Learned in cultural groups
• Interpreted unconsciously
• Often overrides verbal
language
• ~60% of communication?
• Beware of guidebooks.
Smell, Taste, and Touch
• Smell
– And ethnicity, culture
– Cigars, perfumes and status
• Taste
– And group membership
• Spicy foods..
• Touch
– And gender and power
• Relation to proxemics….
Proxemics
• Edward Hall, 1950s
• How people perceive and use space
• Cowboy proxemics
• Getting to theatre seats.
Gender, Status, & Space
• Entering into someone’s ‘space’
• Getting the ‘best’ office
– Or the biggest bedroom
• Having one’s own ‘space’
– Dens vs sewing rooms.
Culture and Space
• Different arrangements
– US grids & French circles
– German doors: closed vs open
• Different uses
– Where to eat in the Comoros
• Depends on gender too.
Kinesics
• Ray Birdwhistell, 1950s
• Body movements
– Shrugs, nods. Arm & leg-crossing
• Facial expressions
– Smiles, frowns, winks
• Gestures
– Palm up / palm down
– Thumbs up!
• Kinemes, allokines & kinemorphs.
Typology of Gestures
• Eckman & Friesen, 1960s
– Emblems
• Translatable (waving)
– Illustrators
• Of what is said (steering)
– Affect Displays
• Convey emotion (smiling)
– Regulators
• Control or coordinate (pointing)
– Adaptors
• Facilitate release (wiggling).
What non-verbal messages can
you interpret from this picture?
Gesture Systems
• Where verbal communication is difficult
• Topics and contexts are limited
– Simple alternative systems
• Little or no syntax
– Sawmills, baseball games, sailboat racing
– Complex alternative systems
• Syntax based on spoken language:
• Syntax independent of any spoken language
– Native American Plains sign language
» Signs used in varying order.
Manual Language
• A system of communication that employs
hand movements to convey meanings.
– American Sign Language (ASL) is used by
deaf people in the U.S.
• Topics and contexts are unlimited
– Syntax is complex, unique to specific
language
• American Sign Language (ASL; Ameslan) vs British
– Mutually unintelligible; not based on English
syntax
• Signs = concepts, not words (‘right’ vs ‘right’)
• Syntax = one sign can stand for several words
ASL
Four articulatory parameters:
•
•
•
•
Hand configuration
Place of Articulation
Movement of Hands
Orientation
Vocabulary & Grammar
o Socially constructed symbols
o May contain a single sign or a combination
of signs.
Paralanguage
• Sounds that “accompany” speech
– But aren’t words themselves
• George Trager (1950s)
– voice qualities
• Loudness, tone of voice
• Pitch, speed, rhythm
• Vocal modifications:
– whispering, cooing, breathy voice, rising intonation
– Vocal segregates (or vocal gestures)
• Stand on their own
– uh-huh, mhmm, shhhh, throat-clearing.
Speech Substitutes
• Sound signals substitute for spoken words
– Or parts of words
• Useful for communicating over distances
• Examples:
– Drum languages
• based on tones (Nigeria)
– Whistle languages
• based on tones
• based on vowels
– different whistled pitches = different vowels
Non-verbal Communication
• Edward Hall study of time
• Chronemics
– Monochronic Time
– Polychronic Time
Nonverbal communication
• Almost 2/3s of communication.
• Messages sent by clothing, jewelry,
tattoos, piercings, and body
modifications.
• Read article: Body Art as Visual
Language (handout)
Body Art
The Meaning of Silence
• Meaning?
• Culturally bound
• Effects of status?
– Cultural difference
– Attitudes about silence in the U.S.