Download Summary of Chapter

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Emotion and memory wikipedia , lookup

Biology and consumer behaviour wikipedia , lookup

Emotional lateralization wikipedia , lookup

Emotion perception wikipedia , lookup

Theories of humor wikipedia , lookup

Neuromarketing wikipedia , lookup

Advertising Design:
Theoretical Frameworks and Types of Appeals
Two major topics are covered in this chapter. The first is the three theoretical approaches to
advertising design:
1. The hierarchy of effects model
2. Means-ends theory
3. Visual and verbal imaging
The second topic is to review, in detail, the major appeals used by advertisers. Many of these
approaches may seem familiar. The goal of the account executive and the creative is to select
the appeal that has the best chance of leading to the desired outcome or behavior. From there,
the actual message content is developed. Before beginning the process of creating the ad, it is
important to remember the steps taken up to this point. These are summarized by noting the
items in the creative brief.
The Creative Brief
The elements of a Creative Brief were introduced in Chapter 5 and are shown in Figure 6.1:
 The objective of the ad
 The target audience
 The message theme
 The support
 Any constraints to be included
Advertising Theory
In developing an advertisement for an advertising campaign, there are theoretical frameworks
that can be useful, including:
 The hierarchy of effects model
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
A means-ends theory
Visual and verbal frameworks
Hierarchy of Effects
The hierarchy of effects model is helpful in clarifying the objectives of an advertising
campaign as well as the objective of a particular advertisement.
The model suggests that a consumer or a business buyer moves through a series of six steps
when being convinced to make a purchase:
1. Awareness.
2. Knowledge.
3. Liking.
4. Preference.
5. Conviction.
6. The actual purchase.
Although the hierarchy of effects model helps creatives to understand the impact of an
advertisement on viewers, some of its underlying principles have been questioned. For
instance, there are times when consumers may first make a purchase and then later develop
knowledge, liking, preference, and conviction.
The major benefit of the hierarchy of effects model is that it is one method that can be used to
identify the typical steps consumers and businesses take when making purchases.
The components of the hierarchy of effects approach highlight the various responses that
advertising or other marketing communications must accomplish.
The hierarchy of effects model has many similarities with theories regarding attitudes and
attitudinal change, especially regarding cognitive, affective, and conative components.
Means-Ends Theory
A means leads the consumer to a desired end state.
The end states are various personal values consumers hold, many of which are shown in
Figure 6.2.
Means-ends theory is the basis of a model called MECCAS. MECCAS stands for MeansEnds Conceptualization of Components for Advertising Strategy. MECCAS model suggests
five elements should be utilized in creating ads:
1. The product’s attributes.
2. Consumer benefits.
3. Leverage points.
4. Personal values.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
5. The executional framework.
A means-end chain for milk is displayed in Figure 6.3.
The MECCAS concept also applies to business-to-business advertisements. The personal
values of members of the buying center might include job security for making good decisions,
self-fulfillment, wisdom, and social acceptance by other members of the buying group.
Types of Advertising Appeals
The primary appeals, as shown in Figure 6.5, are:
The appeal to be used should be based on a review of the creative brief, the objective of the
advertisement, and the means-ends chain to be conveyed.
Fear appeals are used because they work. Fear increases both the viewer’s interest in an
advertisement and the persuasiveness of that ad.
There is a theoretical explanation regarding the way fear works. It is referred to as the
behavioral response model and is shown in Figure 6.6
A business-to-business advertiser offering Internet services may try to focus on the severity of
down time if a company’s Internet server goes down or the firm’s vulnerability.
A key decision is how strong to make the fear in the advertisement. Most advertisers believe a
moderate level of fear will be the most effective. Too much fear causes the viewer to turn
away. Too little does not attract attention.
Humor is effective in both getting attention and keeping it, which helps the ad cut through
Humor is used in about 30% of all advertisements.
The success of humor as an advertising tactic is based on causing consumers to:
 Watch
 Laugh
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Most importantly, remember
In recall tests, humorous ads are often the most remembered.
To be successful, the humor should be directly connected to the product’s benefits.
Some of the reasons for using humorous ads are identified in Figure 6.7.
Unfortunately, humorous ads can also backfire. Advertisers must be careful to avoid letting
the humor overpower the advertisement. When humor fails, it is usually because the joke in
the ad is remembered but the product or brand is not.
Sarcasm and jokes made at someone’s expense are often popular with younger audiences, but
are not well received by baby boom and older generations.
Musical Appeals
Music gains attention and increases the retention of visual information at the same time. Most
consumers remember the song along with images of the product or company.
Music can lead to a better recall of the visual and emotional aspects of an ad.
Music can also increase the persuasiveness of argument.
Musical memories are often stored in long-term recall areas of the brain.
Several decisions are made when selecting music for ads, including answers to these
 What role will music play in the ad?
 Will a familiar song be used, or will something original be created?
 What emotional pitch should the music reach?
 How does the music fit with the message of the ad?
Music can be:
 An incidental part or the primary theme of the ad
 Used to misdirect the audience so a surprise ending can appear
 Anything from whimsical, to dramatic, to romantic
An important decision involves the selection of a familiar tune versus creating original music
for the ad.
Well-known songs have an advantage: Consumers already have developed an affinity for the
song that they can transfer to the product.
Popular songs are often costly and some musicians refuse to sell them. Some that have been
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
featured are shown in Figure 6.10.
Some advertisers now look for new, less-well-known musicians to reduce costs.
Emotional Appeals
Emotional appeals are based on three ideas, as summarized in Figure 6.11.
Consumers ignore most advertisements.
Rational appeals go unnoticed unless the consumer is in the market for a
particular product at the time it is advertised.
Emotional advertising can capture a viewer’s attention and help develop an
attachment between a consumer and a brand.
Most creatives view emotional advertising as the key to developing brand loyalty.
In 1998, 21 of the 34 Effie Gold Awards presented by the New York Chapter of the American
Marketing Association used emotional appeals. The most common approach used by winners
was to combine humor with emotions.
Business-to-business advertisers are using more emotional appeals. In the past only 5% to
10% of all business-to-business ads utilized an emotional appeal. Today, that percentage is
around 25%.
The rationale for changing to emotional business-to-business ads is the idea that emotions
affect all types of purchase decisions, so they also affect members of the buying center.
Television is one of the best media for emotional appeals, because it has intrusion value and
can utilize both sound and sight. Facial expressions can convey emotions and attitudes.
Emotions can be tied with humor, fear, music, and other appeals to make a compelling case
for a product.
Figure 6.12 lists some of the emotions utilized in advertising.
Scarcity Appeals
Scarcity appeals urge consumers to buy a particular product because of a limitation. The
limitation can be a limited number of the products available, or, more often, that the product is
available for only a limited time.
A scarcity appeal is often used with other promotional tools, such as a price discount to
encourage retailers who stock up.
The primary benefit of scarcity appeals is that they encourage consumers to take action.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
What are the five main elements of a creative brief? How do they affect the
choice of advertising appeals?
The five main elements are the objective, target audience, message theme, support,
and constraints. They affect the choice of advertising appeals because they lay the
groundwork for what is expected in an advertisement.
What are the six stages of the hierarchy of effects model? Do they always occur
in that order? Why or why not?
The six stages of the hierarchy of effects model are awareness, knowledge, liking,
preference, conviction, and the actual purchase. These are sequential, although in
some instances the order may be different.
How are the three components of attitudes related to the hierarchy of effects
The three components of attitudes are cognitive, affective, and conative. Cognitive
components are the person’s mental images, understanding, and interpretations of the
person, object, or issue. The affective component contains the feelings or emotion a
person has about the topic, object, or idea. The conative component is the individual’s
intentions, actions, or behavior. The sequence leading to a purchase decision is similar
to the hierarchy of effects, as the consumer moves from awareness to feelings then to
What are the advantages and disadvantages of fear appeals in advertising?
The major advantage of using a fear appeal in advertising is that it can work. Fear
increases a viewer’s interest in an advertisement and raises the persuasiveness of the
ad. The disadvantages are that fear appeals may not be appropriate for all products and
that too high of a level of fear may be detrimental.
When does humor work in an ad? What pitfalls should be avoided in using
humorous appeals?
Humor works effectively in most situations. Humorous ads cause consumers to watch,
laugh, and remember the ad. Advertisers should be cautious to avoid having the humor
overpower the rest of the ad. Remember, the objective is to get the consumer to
remember the brand, not just the humor in the advertisement. Other issues to consider
include are how different groups of people will view the ad and whether the humor is
in good taste. Different ages, ethnic groups, and even members of the two genders
view ads and humor differently.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
How can emotions accentuate advertisements? Why are they being used more
often in business-to-business advertisements?
Emotional appeals are based on three ideas:
1. Consumers ignore most advertisements.
2. Rational appeals go unnoticed unless the consumer is in the market for a particular
product at the time it is advertised.
3. Emotional advertising can capture a viewer’s attention and help develop an
attachment between a consumer and a brand.
Emotional ads reach the right side of the brain, which is the creative side. They are
being used more in business-to-business advertisements because businesses are
realizing that decision makers, as well as regular customers utilize emotions in
decision making. They may ignore more rational ads, or not be as strongly persuaded
by them.
What is scarcity? How do scarcity ads lead to buyer action?
Scarcity is the idea that there is a limited supply of a product. Scarcity ads lead a
consumer to buy because of the perception that there is a limited amount of the
product or a limited time to make the purchase, so if they want to have it, they must
buy now.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall