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SS8H1: The student will evaluate the development of Native
American cultures and the impact of European exploration
and settlement on the Native American cultures in Georgia.
b. Evaluate the impact of European contact on Native American
cultures; include Spanish missions along the barrier islands, and the
explorations of Hernando de Soto.
c. Explain reasons for European exploration and settlement of
North America, with emphasis on the interests of the French,
Spanish, and British in the southeastern area.
Period of Exploration WHY
 While the Native Americans were evolving,
Europe was changing as well. European
countries were in a competition to be the most
powerful country. They wanted the most wealth
and military power.
 Interested in riches from the Far East. This region
included India, China, and Japan. It’s known as
the Indies.
 Lots of goods here that were in high demand
Marco Polo
 No, this is not the pool
 Marco Polo was an
explorer. He traveled the
world and found spices and
riches in the East (what is
now known as India)
 Europeans decided to use
the same route, called the
Silk Road, to trade with
the East.
The Road became Dangerous
 1400s – Silk Road was controlled by Muslims
 Made it difficult to travel
 Europeans needed a new way to travel, so they looked at the
 Prince Henry “the Navigator,” Portugual’s ruler, wanted to be
the first to reach India by the sea and believed that the
quickest way would be to go south around Africa.
Spain becomes jealous
 Spanish rulers, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, did not
want Portugual to reach the area first by sea, so they hired
Christopher Columbus. PLUS Columbus could not get
funding from Portugal for the voyage so he went to the king
and queen of
 Spain, and
 They saw an
 Opportunity.
 Once Spain came onto the scene, Portugal was worried
 Worried about Spanish success in New World
 Worried about possible problems with shipping lines
BUT both nations were catholic so the pope, Alexander VI, came
up with a decree to appease both nations, dividing the rights to
the new world between the two.
A line was drawn 400 miles West of the Azores Islands called the
line of demarcation.
Line of Demarcation
 Pope Alexander VI drew the Line of Demarcation
to keep the Spanish and Portuguese from going to
 However, this decision made Spain the dominant
world power.
What did the diseases do?
• Measles – fever along with blisters and a
respiratory infection
• Smallpox - gave flu like symptoms
(fatigue, headache, body aches, high
fever), mouth sores, blisters, vomiting, skin
• Influenza – fatigue, headache, body
aches, high fever
• Whooping cough – starts as a cold and
then goes into a extremely bad cough
Spanish Missions
In 1565, Spain sent Captain General
Pedro Menéndez to found a colony
in St. Augustine, Florida. A colony is
a group of people who settle a new
land but keep
ties to their homeland.
The building of missions helped the Spanish
to colonize North America.
Ruins of a Spanish mission near Dover Bluff, GA (Camden County)
(South of Brunswick)
In 1566, the Spaniards moved up the
coast to St. Catherine’s & Cumberland
Islands. That year,
the Spanish founded a mission, Santa
Catalina, on St. Catherine’s
The Spanish named this region
Guale [wallie] for the Indians
living in this area. About 30 men
were left to establish the first
Spanish post on Georgia soil.
The Spanish later established
other missions on St. Simons
Island and Sapelo Island
at the mouth of the
Altamaha River.
The main purpose of the missions was to
convert the Indians to
the Catholic faith. Building missions and
having soldiers
…………………………………………to guard
…………………………………………….claim to
……………………………………………the land.
Trade between the Indians
and Spanish also took place
at the missions.
There were occasional uprisings
and some of the Indians moved
away from the missions. The
Indians population also
decreased because of diseases
brought by the Europeans.
• Elizafield
Tensions further increased when the
British settled in present-day
Charleston, SC around 1670.
The British establish trade routes with
the local tribes and encouraged the
disagreements between the
missionaries and the Indians.
The British also probably
encouraged pirates to raid the
Spanish missions. All of these
problems led the Spanish to
gradually withdraw from the
Georgia coast by 1685.
De Soto was followed by many
other European explorers,
most of them from Spain,
France and England.
• SS8H1 The student will evaluate the
development of Native American cultures
and the impact of European exploration and
settlement on the Native American cultures
in Georgia.
• c. Explain reasons for European exploration
and settlement of North America, with
emphasis on the interests of the French,
Spanish, and British in the southeastern area.
Spain, England, and France established
settlements in Georgia and competed with
each other and with Native American
tribes for control of the land.
By the end of the 1500s, the conflict
between Spain and England had
turned into an undeclared war at
sea. English sea captains captured
Spanish treasure ships filled with
gold, silver, and other valuable
The British also attacked and
burned Spanish settlements in
New World.
To counter these attacks, Spanish
King, Phillip II, plotted to invade
England using a huge fleet of ships
that the Spanish called the
“Invincible Armada.”
The Spanish plot failed as the
English destroyed or ran off
much of the Armada in 1588.
England then gained control of
the seas and
was ready to pursue its interests
in the New World.
Like most Europeans, the English
thought there were large amounts of
gold, silver, and exotic foods in the
New World. They thought the country
that claimed this new land would
become even more powerful.
In the 1600s, the English began
permanent settlements along the east
coast of the New World. Their first
permanent settlement was
Jamestown, Virginia in 1607.
By the close of the 1600s, England
had established 12 colonies long the
Atlantic coastline.
Although Spain moved out of Guale
by 1686, more than one country
claimed the land.
France was establishing colonies along
the Gulf Coast and
in northern Alabama.
Both the French and the Spanish
posed a threat to the
British colonies. Settlers
in South Carolina asked
that a fort be built
at the mouth of
the Altamaha
River to serve
as a “warning point”
for invaders.
In 1721, Fort King George was
completed. The fort established
the English presence in Georgia.
So why did the Spanish come to
this area?
• God – Spain wanted to convert Native
Americans to Christiantity
• Gold – they wanted as much gold as
possible for their treasury
• Glory – Conquistadors were looking for
fame and fortune
Why did the French come to this
• French protestants known as Hugenots
did not want to be Catholic. In order to not
be persecuted, they fled to North America.
What were the reasons for the
British (English)?
• BC they wanted religious freedom
• BC this area was a source of various
natural resources that weren’t available in
• BC they wanted land and to establish
SS8E1: The student will give examples of the kinds of goods
and services produced in Georgia in different historical periods.
What is a good and a service?
 A good is something that you can use or consume, like food or
CDs or books or a car or clothes.You buy a good with the idea
that you will use it, either just once or over and over again.
 A service is something that someone does for you, like give
you a haircut or fix you dinner or even teach you social
studies.You don't really get something solid, like a book or a
CD, but you do get something that you need.
 The basic difference is that a good is something you can hold
in your hand (unless it's something big, like a car or a house).
kinds of goods produced during
this time period
Deerskins + other animals
What kinds of services?
 Missionaries
 Conquistadors
 Explorers
 Kings
 Queens