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Download Packet 9 Exam Review Sheet Vocab to know:
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Packet 9 Exam Vocab to know: Ecology Biosphere Species Population Community Ecosystem Biome Autotroph Heterotroph Consumer Herbivore Carnivore Omnivore Decomposer Food chain Food web Trophic level Ecological pyramid Biomass Evaporation Transpiration Limiting nutrient Weather Climate Greenhouse effect Polar zone Review Sheet Temperate zone Tropical zone Biotic factor Abiotic factor Habitat Niche Resource Predation Symbiosis Mutualism Commensalisms Parasitism Ecological succession Pioneer species Biome Plankton Zooplankton Photic zone Aphotic zone Biodiversity Competition Predator Prey Scavenger Concepts you need to understand: 1. Understand how organisms interact with their environment. (food chains, food webs, biotic and abiotic factors.) 2. Energy is needed to keep an ecosystem going. The initial energy comes from the sun and is made available to organisms through producers. (plants, autotrophs, algae) 3. Energy is passed on to other organisms in the form of food. Since all organisms must use energy for their own needs, most energy is lost before it can be passed to the next step in the food chain. As a result, organisms high on the food chain have less energy available to them and must have smaller populations (less energy—less biomass; ecological pyramids) 4. Environmental factors (air, water, light, temperature, pH, food, predators, etc) determine which organisms can live in an ecosystem and how large the populations can get. 5. Materials must be recycled in ecosystems. Dead organisms and wastes must be recycled in ecosystems so that their raw materials can be made available for re-use by producer organisms. The gas exchange of photosynthesis and respiration, along with the action of decomposers are crucial to the recycling process. 6. There are many roles in an ecosystem (niche), but competition between species usually results in only one species occupying a niche at any one time. Only one species at a time can occupy a niche. Often,organisms with similar needs will divide resources to reduce competition. (for example some birds eat insects during the day so the bats can eat them at night) 7. Biodiversity refers to the variety of life on Earth. The greater the biodiversity, the more stable the ecosystem. (refer to page 99 in your Prentice Hall Review Book) 8. Know the basic processes of ecological succession. Succession, a series of environmental changes, occurs in all ecosystems. The stages that any ecosystem passes through are predictable.