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Transcript
Figure 7-2: APS-2 pixel layout. The four large rectangles make up the CDS capacitor
C2 . The reset and source follower transistors use H-gates, while the current source
and row-select switches use straight gates.
7.3
Simulation
APS-2 was simulated using the same bulk models used in Section 6.5.
Simulations suggest p-type transistors are leakier than n-type. Simply having zero
gate-source voltage does not turn the transistor off enough to allow proper integration.
It is possible that the edgeless H-gate designs solve this problem; SPICE does not
have an easy way to account for gate shapes. Lowering the reset drain voltage allowed
the simulation of the APS-2 pixel operating correctly. All simulations were done with
the reset drain at 2.5 V, with the reset gate off voltage at 3.3 V. A 1 pF column
capacitor was added to represent bus capacitance.
Basic operation
Despite the negative value of VSG used, simulations still showed the capacitive sense
node being pulled up, without any photocurrent present, with a slope of 42 volts per
second. This offset resulted in non-linear behavior when applying photocurrents of
100, 200, 500, and 1000 fA (Figure 7-3). Subtracting the offset, however, corrected for
this deficiency, allowing linear operation of the APS-2 pixel (see Table 7.1). The gain,
measured as output slope divided by input current, varies by 0.6% as photocurrent
105