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BIOL 242
Objectives Unit 2: Chaps 18, 19
Chapters 18, 19 – Cardiovascular System: Heart and Vessels
1. Describe the characteristics of cardiac muscle. How does it compare to skeletal muscle?
Know the structure and function of the intercalated discs.
2. Know the layers of the heart wall and the composition of the pericardium.
3. Describe the structure and function of each part of the heart including: the right and left atria,
right and left ventricles, semilunar valves, tricuspid and bicuspid valves, chordae tendinae,
papillary muscles, pulmonary arteries and veins, inferior and superior vena cava and aorta.
4. Trace the pathway of blood through the heart listing all structures and vessels by name.
5. Describe the structural differences between the left and right ventricles.
6. Describe how the heart sounds are produced.
7. Describe the components of the heart's conduction system and how the system functions.
Explain how the electrocardiogram corresponds to the heart's electrical and muscular
8. Understand the steps involved in an action potential of a cardiac muscle cell. How does it
compare to a skeletal muscle cell? What is a pacemaker potential and how is it generated?
9. Understand the events of the heartbeat and the cardiac cycle. What happens to the phases
when the heart rate increases?
10. Know the definition of the following terms: cardiac output, SV, EDV, and ESV, stroke
volume, ejection fraction.
11. Know the formula to calculate the cardiac output. Understand the cardiodynamic factors
that influence the heart rate and stroke volume.
12. Describe the structural and functional differences between arteries (elastic and muscular),
capillaries and veins.
13. Describe the distribution of blood in the arteries, capillaries and veins.
14. Explain the role of hydrostatic pressure, colloidal osmotic pressure in generating the net
filtration pressure. Know how changes to the factors in the capillary exchange equation
affect the balance between filtration and reabsorption.
15. Explain how blood pressure is controlled including the autoregulatory, nervous, and
hormonal regulation systems. Explain how cardiac output and peripheral resistance are
related in regulating blood pressure.
16. Know the arteries and veins on the lab practical study guide
Intro. Human Anatomy & Physiology I & II NSCC