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Ch. 3 - Nature & Nurture
Genes - Our Biological
General Biology
Cell - Chromosomes (DNA) - Genes
Evolutionary Psychology
E.g. Men more likely than women to
initiate casual sex. Why?
Biologically, it is a more successful
reproductive strategy for men than
Behavioral Genetics
Predicting individual differences
Identical twins studies
Identical twins, reared apart highlight the
importance of genetic predispositions
Gene & environment
interaction (Nature & Nurture)
E.g. Tall people are more common as
Presidents and CEO’s of corporations
E.g. Early sexual maturity in females can
result in being teased and rejected by
classmates (Larger breasts)
Prenatal environment
E.g. Fetal alcohol syndrome
Children being mentally retarded because
their mothers drank heavily during
Prenatal development of
external male sex organs
Stimulated by testosterone
When genetically female child receives
excess testosterone during fetal
development, she is more likely to be
Culture and development
Parents and most effectively influence
their children by helping to select their
children’s friends (peers)
Culture influences how we
E.g. Covering your mouth when you caugh
Personal space
Gender roles & behavior
Sally takes responsibility for preparing
family meals because she has learned it
is expected on women.
Social learning Theorists &
Daughter fights = Dad’s comfort
Boys fight = “Big boys don’t cry”