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Unit 4: Development through the life stages
Understanding the potential effects of life factors
and events on the development of the individual
You will be able to:
1. Identify and define the stages of growth and
development through the human lifespan
2. Identify, define and apply the potential effects of
life factors and events on the development of the
3. Discuss the nature-nurture debate in relation to
4. Explain the impact of major life events on the
development of an individual
Split your page into 2 with the headings:
Nature and Nurture
Include (where possible) the following:
Who in your family do you look like?
What genetic traits do you think you have inherited?
Do you act or speak like anyone in your family?
Have you chosen a similar career path to them?
Where did you grow up?
What was your family home/environment like?
Have you lived in the same place all your life or have you moved?
What were your friends like?
Nature: Identify the biological characteristics
that make you unique.
Nurture: Consider the unique characteristics
of the environment in which you grew up.
The nature versus nurture debate focuses on
the argument that:
◦ We are born the way we are
◦ i.e. People are born evil hence why they commit
◦ Or
◦ The way we are brought up and our surroundings
make us the way we are
◦ i.e. This child is aggressive because he was
brought up in an aggressive environment.
Determinism is the belief that your future is
fixed or determined either by what you have
genetically inherited or by your social
environment and experience.
The alternative to determinism is the belief
that people can take control of their own lives
through the choices they make (free will),
Some people believe that everything is fixed
by nature or nurture or the opposite that
everything is a matter of choice
However, you must take into consideration
that human life course involves an interaction
of nature, nurture and the decisions and
choices that people make.
Genes provide the instructions for structuring
amino acids which in turn influence the
proteins within our body cells thus
programming chemical basis of our biology,
Our body shape, size as well as our behaviour
depend on the interaction of our biology with
broader environmental,
A human being is the result of the interaction
of genes (biological programming) and the
environmental influences they are exposed
we a product of
our genes or the
way we have been
brought up?
Identify the various factors that could be
effected by socio-economic factors.
Think about how environment and lifestyle
are linked to socio-economic factors.
This is mainly to do with nurture
Low income can cause poor dietary choices,
this can therefore mean poorer health and
lower life expectancy
Those most affected by this can be:
Lone parents
2.69 Available data on (self reported) morbidity tend
to reflect those on mortality. Rates of "long standing
illness" (as defined in the GHS) rise with falling
socioeconomic status and tend to be twice as high
among unskilled manual males and about 2 1/2
times as high among unskilled manual females as
males and females respectively in the professional
classes. Inequalities are smaller in childhood and
early adulthood and larger in middle age. If severe or
"limiting" long-standing illness is isolated from longstanding illness then the poorer groups are found to
be at a still greater disadvantage. Rates of sickness
absence from work are also widely unequal.
26 Nov 1998 – This independent inquiry was
commissioned by Government to contribute to the
development of strategy for health and action on
Findings: the number of people who smoke in the UK
has fallen in recent years, but the number of poor
people who smoke has remained stable.
The poor are also twice as likely to have drink
problems as the rich. Seventeen per cent of poor men
and 6% of poor women has an alcohol problem,
compared with 8% of rich men and 3% of rich women
Going to school in the right area is still
important. Schools in poorer areas may have
a high turn over of staff. They may have more
pastoral problems with depressed children.
There may be a higher percentage of children
who do not speak English. There maybe lower
expectations or achievements.
Compared to more affluent areas with more
success in education and expectations for
children are for Higher Education.
Children who have formed insecure
attachments possibly through dysfunctional
families are more likely to listen to peer
values rather than parental values.
Exposure to negative and violent tendencies
can lead to anti-social behaviour
Positive parenting can support social and
emotional wellbeing, providing a sound
attitude to society
Employment can either lead to fulfilment
providing financial stability or can cause
anxiety stress and depression especially if in
a dangerous environment.
How did you come to chose your educational
Are your values and attitudes your own or are
they copied from other people?
High school drop out to Billionaire.
His father was a lawyer his mother an
airline hostess, did social class
make a difference to his success?
What do you think about
Paris Hilton would she have
been successful born in to a
Family in Poverty?
Twins: Nature or Nurture? – YouTube
Twins Separated at Birth – YouTube
Excerpts from "Secret of the Wild Child"
(Genie) - YouTube