Sex Roles ——How does the differentiation come about? What’s common concept of sex roles? It seems that while the earth’s experiencing great diversification, the sex roles change a little bit, too. Want to know more about the formation of Sex Roles? Prenatal or Postnatal? Biology or Socialization? Sex Roles Formation: Nature or Nurture Discussion with Experts Hot spot: Sex-Role Egalitarianism Conclusion Forecast about the Future Formation of sex roles Biological viewpoint Nurture by society Gene：Man and woman differ in their genetic structure which determines physical development. Formation of sex roles Biological viewpoint Hormones: Prenatal development: Androgen & Estrogen ——Body shape and sexual organs Postnatal development: Testosterone & Prolactin ——emotional development and actual behavior Formation of sex roles Nurture by society Children are rewarded for conforming to parents’ expectations and are punished for behavior that meets with disapprove. 1、Family interactions (especially parents) Learning in society Then … If grows up into a… But if… Formation of sex roles Nurture by society Expectation from teachers: girls as a group score consistently lower than boys as a group on mathematics and science achievement tests. 2、socialization in schools Learning in society Ms. Maths never expects Peter to work it out like this. Formation of sex roles Nurture by society Children and adolescents are influenced by the role models available in a society. They will begin to draw conclusions about which jobs are for them and which are not. “Real-life” role models affect children’s thinking: the role models presented in literature (including comics and children’s books), film, and television. 3、Mass media Learning in society Discussion with experts Now let’s welcome Prof. Li and Dr. He He C.(1984- ), a biologist who works hard on uncovering the inherent relation between sex roles and biological aspects. Li X.L.(1985-), a professor who is accomplished in sociology and anthropology. Question 1 More details about the effect of hormone on the formation of sex roles? Q2： Hermaphrodites? Women gain more Ms. Thomas power from economic wellbeing, becoming less subservient Q3: What do you think of sex role in your specialty? Q4: One of your books mentions that sex roles are related to economic independence in some culture, is it the case? Mr. Thomas Additional knowledge from experts A Hormone on brain function Male: superior visual-spatial skills. Female: an advantage in verbal skills. B Hermaphrodites Hermaphrodites are those who are a mixture of male and female biology. C Anthropological evidence 1、In some culture, women are dominant, controlling, and hardworking, while men were emotional dependent, irresponsible. 2、In society where women control their economic well-being, they develop more power. Hot spot Sex-role egalitarianism 92% Dealing with sex roles, no expert could get rid of this too hot to handle “sex-role egalitarianism”, although much progress has been made to realize a better situation, there’re still a lot that needs improvement. 8% Male Female Percentage of male and female in Top-100 richest people in China. Conclusion: How do sex roles come about? Sex Roles ELSE Society: Learning Evidence Definitely, there will be other factors that have a lot impact on sex roles’ formation, it is just that we’re not aware of them for the time being. Family, school & mass media are the main sources children learn sex roles——we call them social expectations. Can we do something to challenge the status quo? Culture: The Anthropological Evidence Genetics: The biological Evidence Facts that obvious differences exist in masculine and feminine behavior as well as status of male and female in other cultures. Genes and Hormones determine physical, emotional development, actual behavior as well as brain function. What would sex roles be like in the future? Unaltered Change a lot or Poles Apart Team members: Du Ruijun Li Xulin He Chao Thanks for your attention!