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Chapter 4, Socialization
Coming to Terms: Palestinians and Israelis
Nature and Nurture
The Importance of Social Contact
Individual and Collective Memory
The Role of Groups
Symbolic Interactionism and Self-Development
Cognitive Development
Process of Socialization
Begins after birth and continues through life.
Develop human capacities and acquire a
unique personality.
Accept norms, values, beliefs, and languages
needed to participate in the community.
Enables culture to be passed on from
generation to generation.
Palestinian and Israeli Conflict
Sociologists ask:
1. How do members of a new generation learn
about and come to terms with the
environment they inherited?
2. How is conflict between groups passed down
from one generation to another?
Nature and Nurture
Both are essential to socialization.
Human genetic makeup is flexible enough to
enable a person to learn the values, beliefs,
norms, behavior and language of any culture.
Ideas are learned through interaction with
Two or more people who do the following:
1. Share a distinct identity.
2. Feel a sense of belonging.
3. Interact directly or indirectly with one another.
Primary Groups
Fundamental in forming the social nature and
ideals of the individual
 Family
 Sports team
 Military unit
How Children Learn to Take the
Roles of Others
Three stages, each more sophisticated:
1. Imitation - mimic and imitate people in their
2. Play - allows children to practice role taking.
3. Games -include rules and structure.
Children and Games
Through games, children learn to:
1. Follow established rules.
2. Take the roles of all participants.
3. See how their position fits in relation to all
other positions.
Looking Glass Self
People act as mirrors for each other.
We see ourselves reflected in other’s reactions
to our appearance and behaviors.
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive
Sensorimoter stage (birth to age 2)
Preoperational stage (ages 2 to 7)
Concrete operational stage (ages 7 to 12)
Formal operational stage (onset of
adolescence onward)
Discarding values and behaviors unsuited to
new circumstances
Happens naturally over a lifetime: marriage,
parenthood, new jobs, etc.
Can be imposed: prisons, mental institutions,