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Rome and Early Christianity Section 2 From Republic to Empire Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Problems in the Late Republic • Rome Becomes an Empire • Map: The Roman Empire • The Pax Romana Rome and Early Christianity Section 2 From Republic to Empire Main Idea Governmental and social problems led to the end of the Roman Republic and the creation of a new form of government. Reading Focus • What problems did leaders face in the late Roman Republic? • How did Rome become an empire? • What helped tie the Roman empire together during the Pax Romana? Rome and Early Christianity Section 2 Problems in the Late Republic By the mid-100s BC, Rome had no rival anywhere in the Mediterranean world. However, the responsibilities of running their vast holdings stretched the Roman political system to its limits. Social Unrest • Revolution began in political, social institutions • Tensions grew between classes of Roman society • Gracchi brothers tried to resolve tension Soldier-Farmers • Tribune Tiberius Gracchus noted mistreatment of soldier-farmers • Many reduced to poverty • Tiberius, brother Gaius tried to help soldiers Public Land • Gracchi tried to redistribute public land to farmers • Had public support, but Senate feared Gracchi trying to reduce its power • Senate urged mobs to kill brothers Rome and Early Christianity Section 2 The Military in Politics • 107 BC, social unrest reached new level • General Gaius Marius elected consul – Eliminated property restrictions – Accepted anyone who wanted to join army • Armies, private forces devoted to general – Poor hoped to share plunder at end of war – Ruthless generals realized loyalty of troops could be used as political tool Section 2 Rome and Early Christianity Social and Civil Wars The Social War • Rome’s Italian allies had been trying to obtain Roman citizenship • Senate wanted to maintain monopoly on power, refused Civil War • Social War revealed talent of General Lucius Cornelius Sulla • Sulla became consul, 88 BC; after consulship ended, Marius tried to prevent Sulla from taking military command • 90 BC, Social War broke out • Italian rebels were defeated, but Senate agreed to give them citizenship • Sulla marched on Rome, won civil war, became dictator • Carried out program of reforms to protect power of Senate Rome and Early Christianity Section 2 Summarize What challenges faced Rome in the late Republic? Answer(s): slave revolts, social unrest, the Social War, and a civil war in which Sulla became dictator Rome and Early Christianity Section 2 Rome Becomes an Empire Sulla paved the way for major changes in Rome’s government. The end of the Republic resulted from the ambitions of a few individuals. The First Triumvirate • Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompey, Licinius Crassus helped bring end to Republic End of Triumvirate • Crassus died; Pompey, Caesar fought civil war • Caesar, Pompey successful military commanders • Caesar defeated Pompey, took full control of Rome, became dictator for life, 44 BC • Crassus one of wealthiest people in Rome • Caesar brought many changes to Rome, popular reforms • 60 BC, the three took over Roman state, ruled as First Triumvirate • Senate feared he would destroy Roman Republic, murdered him, Ides of March Rome and Early Christianity Section 2 The Second Triumvirate • Caesar’s murder did not save the Republic • 43 BC, Second Triumvirate took power—Caesar’s adopted son, Octavian; loyal officer Marc Antony; high priest Lepidus • Lepidus pushed aside; Antony, Octavian agreed to govern half the empire each, Octavian in west, Antony in East Civil War • Civil war between Octavian, Antony broke out • Octavian defeated Antony and his ally, Egypt’s Queen Cleopatra • Cleopatra, Antony committed suicide; Octavian alone controlled Rome • Republic effectively dead; new period in Roman history beginning Rome and Early Christianity Section 2 From Octavian to Augustus Octavian Takes Power • Octavian faced task of restoring order in empire • Had no intention of establishing dictatorship when he took power Principate • Octavian careful to avoid title of king or emperor • Called himself princeps, “first citizen” • Government called Principate New Political Order • Octavian decided it impossible to return Rome to republican form of government • Created new political order, known today as the empire New Title • 27 BC, Senate gave Octavian title Augustus, “the revered one” • Title a religious honor; able to wear laurel and oak leaf crown Rome and Early Christianity Section 2 The Augustan Age New Imperial Government • Augustus head of state more than 40 years, made smooth transition to new imperial government with power divided between him and Senate • Most financial, administrative matters under Augustus’s control Foreign Affairs • Started program to bring peace to west, particularly to Gaul, Spain • Began series of conquests that pushed border eastward to Danube River • Also took special care of Rome itself Legacy • Created police force, fire brigades; stockpiled food, water • Began building program; presided over moral, religious reforms • Great period of cultural creativity; great writers like Horace, Ovid, Virgil Rome and Early Christianity Section 2 Julio-Claudians and Flavians • • • • Augustus died AD 14, empire ruled by Caesar’s relatives for 54 years Julio-Claudian Emperors’ abilities varied widely Tiberius a good soldier, competent administrator Caligula, brutal, mentally unstable; appointed favorite horse as consul • AD 68, last of Julio-Claudians, Nero committed suicide Flavians • Following Nero’s death, civil wars raged in Rome • Four military leaders claimed throne in turn • Last, Vespasian reestablished order, as did reigns of two sons • Stability returned under Flavians The Good Emperors • AD 96, new line of emperors established—Good Emperors • Five rulers governed Rome for almost a century • From provinces different than Rome, continued opening Roman imperial society Rome and Early Christianity Section 2 The Good Emperors Empire grew tremendously under Good Emperors • Reached limits of expansion under Trajan • Added what are now Romania, Armenia, Mesopotamia, and the Sinai Peninsula • Successor Hadrian thought empire too large – Withdrew from almost all eastern additions – Built defensive fortifications to guard against invasions – Built wall 73 miles long in northern Britain Rome and Early Christianity Section 2 Rome and Early Christianity Section 2 Explain How did Rome grow and change after it became an empire? Answer(s): The Roman Empire reached the limits of its territorial expansion and made developments in building, government, and culture. Section 2 Rome and Early Christianity The Pax Romana The period from the beginning of August’s reign in 27 BC until the death of the last of the Good Emperors in AD 180 is often called the Pax Romana—the Roman Peace. This era was characterized by stable government, a strong legal system, widespread trade, and peace. Government • Roman government strongest unifying force in empire • Maintained order, enforced laws, defended frontiers • Aristocracy participated, but emperors made all important decisions Provinces • Empire divided into provinces ruled by governors appointed from Rome • Provincial government fair, efficient • Government in Rome kept close check on governors • Any citizen could appeal unfair treatment directly to emperor Empire brought uniformity to the cities of the Mediterranean world, which were governed in imitation of Rome. Rome and Early Christianity Section 2 Legal System Laws • Roman law unified the empire • Laws specified what could, could not be done; penalties for breaking law • Same laws applied to everyone in empire, wherever they lived Agriculture • Agriculture remained primary occupation throughout Pax Romana • Most farms, independent with little, no surplus to sell • Tenant farmers began to replace slaves on large farms Manufacturing • Manufacturing increased throughout empire • Italy, Gaul, Spain—artisans made cheap pottery, textiles • Fine glassware made in eastern cities like Alexandria Rome and Early Christianity Section 2 Opportunities for Trade Trade • Italy imported grain, meat, raw materials from provinces • Merchants brought silks, linens, glassware, jewelry, furniture from Asia • Rome, Alexandria became commercial centers Transportation • Commercial activity possible because of empire’s location around Mediterranean and extensive road network • Ultimately about 50,000 miles of roads bound empire together Military and Merchant Routes • Most roads built, maintained for military purposes • Cheaper to transport grain by ship from one end of Mediterranean to other than to send it overland; most goods went by sea Rome and Early Christianity Section 2 Analyze How did government, law, and trade tie the Roman people together? Answer(s): The Roman government was the strongest unifying force, maintaining order, enforcing the laws, and defending the frontiers. Roman law provided stability and, with few exceptions, the same laws applied to everyone in the empire. Trade provided opportunities for commerce between people in different parts of the empire.