Download Foundations of Communications

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Foundations of
Foundations of Communication
• Communication is the act of
– Information communicated
– A verbal or written message
– A process by which information is
exchanged between individuals through a
common system of symbols, signs, or
Why Communicate?
• Establish and maintain relationships
• To persuade and change attitudes or
• Develop an understanding of other
• Problem solve
Elements of Communication Process
• Sender – creator of message
• Message – verbal or nonverbal stimuli
• Receiver – If there is no one to receive
the message, communication is
Two Types of Communication
• Verbal Communication
verbal message – speaking to someone
written communication – it is important
to spell correctly, use proper grammar
and write in a clear and concise manner
The correct way to make a correction
when writing in a medical chart is:
error cl
• Nonverbal communication
1. all messages that are not expressed
as words.
- eye contact: shows that you are
paying attention
- facial expressions: can relay a
different message than what you
are saying
Gestures: convey interest and
a lack of interest; can be
used to emphasize or get
- touch: can convey caring,
warmth, concern and
tenderness…can also convey
anger, rejection and distaste
Barriers to Effective Communication
• Defense mechanisms
– Compensation – substitution of one goal
for another goal to achieve success
– Denial – refusal to believe
– Displacement of anger – feelings about one
person are transferred to another
– Projection – blame for one’s behavior is
placed on someone else or circumstances
– Rationalization – use of a reasonable
excuse for one’s behavior
Barriers in Health Care Communication
– Heavily medicated clients
– Clients with hearing or visual
– Slang and words with double
– Clients with limited English
– Medical Terminology
– Mental or physiological condition
Effective Communication
• Verbal messages must be clear,
complete, concise, courteous, and
• Nonverbal communication (body
language) may change the message
Effective Listening
• Involves both hearing and interpreting
• Requires focusing on body language
and the message being sent
• May be passive or active
– Active listening is very important in the
medical profession to gather information
( for example, when interviewing a patient
for their medical history.
A Patient-centered Approach
• You want to admit an elderly lady with
abdominal pain for a series of investigations,
but she is resistant to coming into hospital.
Indicate which of the following reasons might
account for this.
1. She is frightened that she is seriously ill.
2. She does not like to leave her cat on its
3. She is vegetarian and is worried that she
won’t be able to eat hospital food .
4. She does not want anyone to know that she
5. She cannot afford a new nightgown.
• Any one of the reasons could
explain the lady’s resistance to
being admitted.
Conveying a Positive Attitude
• Health care professionals must be
aware of their own bias and attitudes
when sending and receiving both verbal
and nonverbal messages to avoid
interfering with quality client care
Positive Attitude
• Receiver must have trust in the sender
before they accept a message
• If a patient feels a health care
professional does not know what they
are talking about, they may not accept
the information or treatment
Positive Attitude
• Be willing to say “I don’t know, but
I will find that information for you”
when asked a question for which
you do not have knowledge.
• Clinicians should aim to keep explanations as clear
and as concise as possible.
• That doesn’t mean dismissing patients with a short
‘We will need to test your urine’. It means giving
them the information they want but not more
information than they need or require.
• So ‘I’d like to test your urine so I can see if the
problems you are having are due to an infection' is
better than ‘I want to test your urine for white blood
cells and bacteria’.
• use ‘layman’s terms’ wherever possible
• explain medical terminology whenever possible
• keep words and sentences short
• check understanding by asking