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Transcript
GASEOUS ELECTRONICS
XII.
Academic and Research Staff
Prof. S. C. Brown
Prof. W. P. Allis
Prof. G. Bekefi
Prof. J. C. Ingraham
J. J. McCarthy
W. J. Mulligan
Graduate Students
W. B. Davis
G. A. Garosi
A.
L. D. Pleasance
T. T. Wilheit, Jr.
B. L. Wright
ELECTRON COLLISIONAL EFFECTS ON WAVE PROPAGATION
IN A NONMAGNETIZED
PLASMA
To account properly for the effect of electron-atom collisions on the propagation of
waves in plasmas, it is necessary to utilize the Boltzmann collision integral.1
integral assumes only two-body collisions, and therefore is
This
valid only for collisions
involving short-range forces such as those occurring in electron-atom collisions.
Our treatment utilizes the Boltzmann collision integral and assumes that the electrons collide with particles of much greater mass.
electron-atom collisions.
Thus, this treatment applies to
The calculation determines the form of the dispersion rela-
tion for the electron plasma wave in the presence of electron-atom collisions, and is
a direct application of the method developed by Allis.
Generally, the Krook model
2' 3
1
is used to account for collisions when studying col-
lisional effects on the electron plasma wave.
The advantage of this method is that it
can be applied readily to problems in which the electron temperature is high;
for
example, when the Larmor orbit is comparable with the wavelength perpendicular to
B, the mean-free path is
long compared with the wavelength parallel to B, and the
thermal motion of the electrons parallel to B introduces a significant Doppler shift of
the plasma-wave frequency.
It has the disadvantage that it is only an approximation to
the collisional effect and, although it can be so formulated that it does not violate the
conservation of plasma particles,
it cannot be readily formulated in such a way that it
also conserves plasma particle energy and accounts correctly for the angular and velocity dependence of the electron-atom scattering cross section.
The method used in this
report is cumbersome to apply to plasmas with high electron temperatures, but it does
account exactly for the collisional effects.
The results of the two methods will be com-
pared at the end of the calculation.
The Boltzmann equation for the electron distribution function, f, in the absence of
an applied magnetic field is
This work was supported by the Joint Services Electronics Programs (U. S. Army,
U. S. Navy, and U. S. Air Force) under Contract DA 28-043-AMC-02536(E).
QPR No. 85
135
(XII.
GASEOUS ELECTRONICS)
af
e
r
8t
m
af
\at/c'
v
where e/m is the electron charge-to-mass ratio, E is
the electric field, and (f
c
represents the Boltzmann collision integral. The distribution function is expanded in
Legendre polynomials, P (cos 0), where 0 is the angle between 2 and the electron
velocity, v:
00
f (r,v,t)PP(cos 0).
f=
(2)
£=0
This expression is substituted in both the right- and left-hand sides of (1), and the terms
comprising the coefficients of each P on each side of the equation are equated separately; this generates an infinite set of equations for the f (the ratio of the electronto-atom mass is set equal to zero, also):
a8f
at
v afI
eE
a
3 a8z
3my2
v
8t + v
a fo
2l 2
t f z + 2f
af + v
at
+1
+ 2+3
+3
(3)
(3
=
eE
3l
+ 23 8 vf
v
8v
m
f-1
az Lf-1
21
+f1
f+1
2Z+3
1
+2
+ 8avv
£+2
av f
-V-fo f
cl -5v
eE
I J-1 a f
m 2I-1
av a-1
V
l = -vcf.
f+1
J
'c
It has been assumed that the perturbed distribution function does not depend on the x
and y spatial coordinates, and the E field is assumed to be parallel to the z-axis. This
is consistent with the effect of plasma wave propagation (E II k) on the distribution function, in the absence of a magnetic field. The quantities vcl are weighted collision
frequencies arising from the Boltzmann collision integral.
ve =
2
rvng
9
=0
0=0
They are given by
"(O)(1 -Pf(cos 0)) sin 0 dO,
(4)
where a(O) is the differential scattering cross section, v the electron velocity, and n
g
the volume density of the gas atoms.
In the absence of the perturbing
wave only the spherically
independent part of f, fo(v), is nonzero.
so normalized that
QPR No. 85
symmetric, timeThe unperturbed distribution function, fo, is
f fo0 d 3 v = no, where n is the unperturbed electron density. Denoting
136
(XII.
GASEOUS ELECTRONICS)
the time-dependent part of fo by fo, we obtain the linearized form of Eqs. 3:
afo1
at
f
+
1
v a8f
-
0
3 8z
+ V
a8f+v
at
a
a
fo
8z L I
az
+
1-1
afo
o
v
v
eE
m
2 2]
5
1
cl
fl
]= v f
-i ff
ff + 2+3
(k>1).
ck
We next assume that all of the perturbed quantities and the electric field vary as
e i(ct-kz); thus we obtain for Eqs. 5
• o
ikv f1 = 0
-iwf 0 + kf
3
1
(-iw + v
)f
(-iw+vc
)f
cl
+ ikv f
1
+
+ ikv -_
2
2
5
1
eE
8fo
o
m
av
f+1
fk-1 +f+1
_+ 1 f
0
= 0
(£>1).
o
This infinite set of equations can be solved for fl to obtain
1
f
o _
I
8fo
eE kv
o
-1 m
3 av
(Lk\ 2
),i. (4
+
)
v
iw(iw 15
3
cl+
i k
)
2
IW.vI
(-iw + vc2 + D)
where D is a fraction of the form
9(kv)
16 (kv)2
3 5 (-io + Vc3
63(-iw + vc4 +...)
and the general term in the fraction is
2 (kv) 2
-iw + v cl-1i +
(f+1)2(kv)2
(4 j
2
- 1) -i
+
(4(
QPR No. 85
+1)
137
-
1)(-i
+vc+v
+...
etc.)
(XII.
GASEOUS ELECTRONICS)
We may now calculate the electron density perturbation, nl, which is due to the
wave:
0
2
f14wrv dv.
n 1 = no
(9)
0
Poisson's equation for the electric field is
7V
E = ikE
nle
-
(10)
o
and combining (9) and (10), we obtain the dispersion relation for the wave
afo
4o 2
1
v
0
iw(iw - v)
-
(kv)
+
3
dv
2
iwo(kv)
2
(11)
'
(-iw + vc2 +
D)
c2
/n
where c
e
=
is the electron plasma frequency.
0
If fo is Maxwellian, it follows that
o
afo
f
0
av
order of the mean-square electron velocity.
v
where v2
o
2 o
kT
mo
and is of the
o
In this case Eq. 11 becomes
2
p
1
Sv
v4 f
0
0
o
(kv)
(i-v
) +
1 v cl
3
dv
4
15
2
(12)
iw(kv) 2
(-iw+ v
2
+ D)
2
For a cold plasma in which (kv) Z <<
+ 2 )1/2 only the collision frequency vl
enters significantly into the damping. To account correctly for first-order temperature effects, it is seen from the denominator of (12)
that the collision frequency Vc2
is also important. The last of the three terms in the denominator (see Eqs. 6) is absent
if f2 is assumed to be negligible and, therefore, f2 must not be neglected in this treatment if the dispersion relation is to be correct to first order in temperature. It is seen
(kv)2
that this treatment does not converge rapidly unless
<<1 and, therefore,
(2
+ v
l )1/2
is not readily applied to cases in which the wave phase velocity is not much greater than
the electron thermal velocity. Setting D = 0 is equivalent to assuming f = 0 for f > 3
QPR No.
85
138
(XII.
in Eqs.
GASEOUS ELECTRONICS)
6, and will give us the correct first-order dependence on temperature of Eq. 12.
-v2 / 2v 2
3/2
(e
By setting fo
o =
2wv
0
Eq. 12 becomes
and D = 0,
o
4
-v /2v
S
P
3
2
0
00
3/2
e
(kv)
i(i- vcl
)
v
2
2
o
+
(i
3
dv
(13)
4
ic
5 ic - vc2
Bers and Musha 4 have calculated the plasma wave dispersion relation, using the
Krook model and assuming a collisional relaxation rate, v c
ity.
,
that is independent of veloc-
Their result for zero magnetic field is
pP
2
2
k v
[I + oZ(o)]
iv
1+
(14)
c
w+iv
Z((o)
w + iv
where
=
0
c
c,
kv o 2-
0
and Z(So) is the plasma dispersion function. 5
For low tempera-
0
ture, the asymptotic expansion of Z( o ) may be used.
With Landau damping neglected,
this is
1(1
Z(o)
+
I
+
4
OO~
.")
(15)
Substituting (15) in (14) and saving terms to first order in temperature in the numerator
and denominator, we obtain, after some algebraic manipulations,
3k2v
p
W(W + iv C)
iv
1
c
S(w
2
= 22
(W
+ iv C )
k v
(16)
o
+ iv2
c
To first order in temperature Eq. 16 becomes
w
2
22
w(w + iv c)
QPR No. 85
i
iv2
3k v
p
(17)
(
+ iv)
2
3w
139
(XII.
GASEOUS ELECTRONICS)
It is only possible to check Eq. 17 against Eq. 13 if we assume vc1 and Vc2 to be
velocity-independent in Eq. 13. Making this assumption, evaluating Eq. 13 to first
order in temperature, and again neglecting the effect of Landau damping gives
2
2
p
1=+
w(w + ivl)
3(kvo)
2
5
+
(w i l+
iv
)
(18)
9
(
If we consider a gas for which the scattering is isotropic, then v
= Vc2. For this
case, Eqs. 17 and 18 agree very closely. For low-temperature plasmas and for v c<
w, this small error in the Krook model will not be important. In a plasma for which
the electron scattering cross section is not isotropic and is strongly velocity-dependent,
for instance, in an argon plasma, a deviation from the Krook model predictions of measured wave lengths and collisional damping effects might be observable.
J. C. Ingraham
References
1.
W. P. Allis, "Motions of Ions and Electrons," Technical Report 299, Research Laboratory of Electronics, M. I. T. , June 13, 1956, see Chap. III.
2. P. L. Bhatnagar, E. P. Gross, and M. Krook, Phys. Rev. 94, 511 (1954).
3. A. Bers and T. Musha, Quarterly Progress Report No. 79, Research Laboratory
of Electronics, M. I.T., October 15, 1965, p. 104.
4. B. D. Fried and S. D. Conte, The Plasma Dispersion Function (Academic Press,
Inc.,
New York,
QPR No. 85
1961).
140