Download Noncommunicable Diseases (Lifestyle Diseases)

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Transcript
Noninfectious / Noncommunicable
Diseases
(Lifestyle Diseases)
Cardiovascular Diseases, Cancer, Diabetes
A disease that is not transmitted by
another person
A disease caused by how you live your life
Types of Noninfectious Diseases

Hereditary Disease - caused by defective
genes inherited by a child from one or both
parents

Congenital disease- a disease that is
present from birth but is not inherited

Autoimmune disease-disease in which a
person’s own immune system attacks and
damages an organ of his or her own body.
Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD)
A disease that affects the heart or blood
vessels
 Approximately 61 million Americans have
a CVD
 CVDs are responsible for 40% of all
deaths in the US = almost 1 million
Americans

Types of Cardiovascular
Diseases
Hypertension, Atherosclerosis,
Diseases of the Heart
Hypertension

High blood pressure
Can damage heart, blood vessels, and other
body organs
 23% of Americans age 20-74 have hypertension
 “silent killer” – no symptoms at early stages

 Get

BP checked regularly
Management
 Medication,
weight management, adequate physical
activity, proper nutrition
Atherosclerosis

The process in which
plaques accumulate on
artery walls
Build up of plaque causes
arteries to thicken and lose
their elasticity
 Clots can form from plaque
 If blood flow is stopped to the
heart = heart attack
 If blood flow is blocked to the
brain = stroke

Heart Attack



Blood flow is blocked to the coronary
arteries
Many are sudden and cause intense
chest pain
Common symptoms




Pressure, fullness, squeezing, or aching in
the chest area
Discomfort spreading to the arms, neck,
jaw, upper abdomen, and back
Chest discomfort with shortness of breath,
lightheadedness, sweating, nausea, and
vomiting
Immediate response and treatment is
needed to treat a heart attack
Stroke
Arterial blockage interrupts the flow of blood
to the brain
 Severity of stroke depends on which part of
the brain lost blood

Congestive Heart Failure
Heart gradually weakens
 Can result from high blood pressure,
atherosclerosis, heart valve defect, or
other factors
 Strategies for prevention – healthy lifestyle
and sometime medication

Risk Factors for CVDs







Controllable
Tobacco Use
High Blood Pressure
High Cholesterol
Sedentary Lifestyle
Excessive Weight
Stress
Drug and Alcohol Use



Uncontrollable
Heredity
Gender
Age
Diabetes
A chronic disease that affects the way
body cells convert food into energy
Type 1 Diabetes

The body does NOT make
insulin – glucose builds up in
the body (high glucose levels)

Autoimmune disease

Must take insulin
Type 2 Diabetes

Noncommunicable Disease




Linked with obesity and a diet high in fat, calories, and cholesterol
Accounts for 90-95% of all diabetes
The body is unable to make enough insulin or use insulin
properly
Treatment

Weight management, regular physical activity, and monitoring their diet
Symptoms of Diabetes










Frequent urination
Excessive thirst
Unexplained weight loss
Extreme hunger
Sudden vision changes
Tingling in hands or feet
Frequent fatigue
Very dry skin
Sores that are slow to heal
More infections than usual