Download Noncommunicable Diseases (Lifestyle Diseases)

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Noncommunicable Diseases
(Lifestyle Diseases)
Cardiovascular Diseases, Cancer,
Noncommunicable disease
A disease that is not transmitted by
another person, a vector, or the
 A disease caused by how you live your life
Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD)
A disease that affects the heart or blood
 Approximately 61 million Americans have
 CVDs are responsible for 40% of all
deaths in the US = almost 1 million
Types of Cardiovascular
Hypertension, Atherosclerosis,
Diseases of the Heart
High blood pressure
Can damage heart, blood vessels, and other
body organs
 Can occur at any age, but more common for
people over the age of 35
 23% of Americans age 20-74 have hypertension
 “silent killer” – no symptoms at early stages
 Get
BP checked regularly
 Medication,
weight management, adequate physical
activity, proper nutrition
The process in which
plaques accumulate on
artery walls
Build up of plaque causes
arteries to thicken and lose
their elasticity
 Clots can form from plaque
 If blood flow is stopped to the
heart = heart attack
 If blood flow is blocked to the
brain = stroke
Heart Attack
Blood flow is blocked to the coronary
Many are sudden and cause intense
chest pain
Common symptoms
Pressure, fullness, squeezing, or aching in
the chest area
Discomfort spreading to the arms, neck,
jaw, upper abdomen, and back
Chest discomfort with shortness of breath,
lightheadedness, sweating, nausea, and
Other symptoms
Immediate response and treatment is
needed to treat a heart attack
Congestive Heart Failure
Heart gradually weakens
 Can result from high blood pressure,
atherosclerosis, heart valve defect, or
other factors
 Strategies for prevention – healthy lifestyle
and sometime medication
Arterial blockage interrupts the flow of blood
to the brain
 Severity of stroke depends on which part of
the brain lost blood
Why am I at risk?
The decisions you make now will affect
your health later in life.
Symptoms may not show up for years
Risk Factors for CVDs
Tobacco Use
High Blood Pressure
High Cholesterol
Sedentary Lifestyle
Excessive Weight
Drug and Alcohol Use
A chronic disease that affects the way
body cells convert food into energy
Symptoms of Diabetes
Frequent urination
Excessive thirst
Unexplained weight loss
Extreme hunger
Sudden vision changes
Tingling in hands or feet
Frequent fatigue
Very dry skin
Sores that are slow to heal
More infections than usual
Type 1 Diabetes
The body does NOT make
insulin – glucose builds up in
the body (high glucose levels)
 Autoimmune disease – a
condition in which the immune
system mistakenly attacks
itself, targeting the cells,
tissues, and organs of a
person’s own body
 Must take insulin
Type 2 Diabetes
Noncommunicable Disease
Linked with obesity and a diet high in fat, calories, and cholesterol
Accounts for 90-95% of all diabetes
The body is unable to make enough insulin or use insulin
Weight management, regular physical activity, and monitoring their diet
Uncontrollable growth of abnormal
Cancer Vocabulary
Tumor – abnormal mass of tissue that has
no natural role in the body
Benign – non-cancerous
 Malignant – cancerous
Metastasis – the spread of cancer from the
point where it originated to other parts of
the body
Risk factors for Cancer
Tobacco use
 Sexually Transmitted Diseases
 Dietary Factors
 Radiation
Detecting Cancer
 Biopsy – the removal of a small piece of
tissue for examination
C – Change in bowel habits
A – A sore that does not heal
U – Unusual bleeding or discharge
T – Thickening or a lump
I – Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
O – Obvious change in a wart or mole
N – Nagging cough or horseness
Treating Cancer
 Radiation therapy
 Chemotherapy
Remission – a period of
time when symptoms
Alzheimer’s Disease
Destroys brain cells, causing problems with memory,
thinking and behavior severe enough to affect work,
lifelong hobbies or social life.
Your brain works like a factory
In Alzheimer’s disease, parts of the cell’s factory stop
running well
take in supplies, generate energy, construct equipment and get rid of
keeping everything running requires coordination as well as large
amounts of fuel and oxygen
But just like a real factory, backups and breakdowns in one system
cause problems in other areas.
The most common form of dementia
Has no current cure