General Concepts Related to Psychiatry and allied sciences Psychiatry v/s Psychology Psychiatry • Mental Health…medical related • Illnesses and their management Psychology • Mental processes • Thoughts, emotions, and behaviors • Comparative animal studies Scope of Psychology • • • • • Clinical Educational Industrial Forensic etc Psychological Concepts • MIND Theories of Mind Psycho-dynamic Theory Parts of Mind CONSCIOUS PRECONSCIOUS UNCONSCIOUS Structural components of mind • Id…Basic instincts • Super ego….External authority • Ego…regulated by the person Personality • Definition Thoughts, emotions and behaviors Stable Predictable Unique Theories of Personality Development • Psycho-social theory Eriksson Epigenetic principle Stages • Trust v/s mistrust • Autonomy v/s shame • Initiative v/s doubts • Industry v/s Inferiority • Identity v/s Role confusion • Intimacy v/s Isolation • Generativity v/s Stagnation • Integrity v/s Despair Cognitive Theory Jean Piaget Stages • Sensori-motor stage • Pre-operational stage • Concrete operational stage • Formal operational stage Psycho-analytic development Sigmund Freud Stages • Oral stage • Anal stage • Phallic stage • Latent period • Secondary genital stage Ego Defense Mechanisms • • • • • • • Denial Acting out Repression Regression Reaction Formation Fantasy Isolation of affect • • • • • • Somatization Rationalization Intellectualization Identification Splitting Projection Learning Theory • Assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli. The learner starts off as a clean slate (i.e. tabula rasa) and behavior is shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement • Several types of learning exist. The most basic form is associative learning, i.e., making a new association between events in the environment. Classical Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov) • • • • • Pavlov’s Dogs unconditioned stimulus unconditioned response conditioned stimulus conditioned response Operant Conditioning (B. F. Skinner) • Operant conditioning can be described as a process that attempts to modify behavior through the use of positive and negative reinforcement. • Through operant conditioning, an individual makes an association between a particular behavior and a consequence • Positive and negative reinforcers • Positive and negative punishment Morality Development How to classify psychiatric illnesses for study purpose • • • • According to the symptomatology According to the etiology According to the age According to the modality involved D.S.M –IV ICD-10 But mostly we study the disorders on the basis of modality involved. These modalities include; Mood Memory Thought Formation Thought Processing Perception etc.