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Transcript
General Concepts
Related to Psychiatry and allied
sciences
Psychiatry v/s Psychology
Psychiatry
• Mental Health…medical related
• Illnesses and their management
Psychology
• Mental processes
• Thoughts, emotions, and behaviors
• Comparative animal studies
Scope of Psychology
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Clinical
Educational
Industrial
Forensic
etc
Psychological Concepts
• MIND
Theories of Mind
Psycho-dynamic Theory
Parts of Mind
CONSCIOUS
PRECONSCIOUS
UNCONSCIOUS
Structural components of mind
• Id…Basic instincts
• Super ego….External authority
• Ego…regulated by the person
Personality
• Definition
Thoughts, emotions and behaviors
Stable
Predictable
Unique
Theories of Personality
Development
• Psycho-social theory
Eriksson
Epigenetic principle
Stages
• Trust v/s mistrust
• Autonomy v/s shame
• Initiative v/s doubts
• Industry v/s Inferiority
• Identity v/s Role confusion
• Intimacy v/s Isolation
• Generativity v/s Stagnation
• Integrity v/s Despair
Cognitive Theory
Jean Piaget
Stages
• Sensori-motor stage
• Pre-operational stage
• Concrete operational stage
• Formal operational stage
Psycho-analytic development
Sigmund Freud
Stages
• Oral stage
• Anal stage
• Phallic stage
• Latent period
• Secondary genital stage
Ego Defense Mechanisms
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Denial
Acting out
Repression
Regression
Reaction Formation
Fantasy
Isolation of affect
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Somatization
Rationalization
Intellectualization
Identification
Splitting
Projection
Learning Theory
• Assumes a learner is essentially passive,
responding to environmental stimuli. The
learner starts off as a clean slate (i.e.
tabula rasa) and behavior is shaped
through positive reinforcement or negative
reinforcement
• Several types of learning exist. The most
basic form is associative learning, i.e.,
making a new association between events
in the environment.
Classical Conditioning
(Ivan Pavlov)
•
•
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Pavlov’s Dogs
unconditioned stimulus
unconditioned response
conditioned stimulus
conditioned response
Operant Conditioning
(B. F. Skinner)
• Operant conditioning can be described as
a process that attempts to modify behavior
through the use of positive and negative
reinforcement.
• Through operant conditioning, an
individual makes an association between a
particular behavior and a consequence
• Positive and negative reinforcers
• Positive and negative punishment
Morality Development
How to classify psychiatric
illnesses for study purpose
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According to the symptomatology
According to the etiology
According to the age
According to the modality involved
D.S.M –IV
ICD-10
But mostly we study the disorders on the
basis of modality involved.
These modalities include;
Mood
Memory
Thought Formation
Thought Processing
Perception
etc.