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Transcript
leadership
and
employee behavior
in international
business
international business, 5th edition
chapter 15
Chapter Objectives 1
• Identify and discuss the basic
perspectives on individual
differences in different cultures
• Evaluate basic views of employee
motivation in international business
• Identify basic views of managerial
leadership in international business
15-2
Chapter Objectives 2
• Discuss the nature of managerial
decision making in international
business
• Describe group dynamics and
discuss how teams are managed
across cultures
15-3
Dimensions Influencing Behavior
Stress
Personality
Creativity
Attitudes
Perception
15-4
Personality
Personality is the
relatively stable set of
psychological attributes
that distinguishes
one person from another.
15-5
What Determines Personality?
Nature
15-6
Nurture
Big Five Personality Traits
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Emotional stability
Extroversion
Openness
15-7
Agreeableness
High
Good natured,
cooperative,
understanding
Low
Agreeableness
The ability to get along with others
15-8
Short tempered,
Irritable,
uncooperative
Conscientiousness
High
Organized,
self-disciplined,
systematic
Low
Conscientiousness
The drive to impose order and precision
15-9
Disorganized,
careless,
irresponsible
Emotional Stability
High
Resilient,
calm,
secure
Low
Emotional Stability
The inclination to maintain
a balanced emotional state
15-10
Reactive,
excitable,
insecure
Extroversion
High
Sociable,
talkative,
assertive
Low
Extroversion
One’s comfort level with relationships
15-11
Less
sociable,
quiet,
introverted
Openness
High
Willing to
change
beliefs, ideas,
and attitudes
Low
Openness
Nonreceptive
to new ideas
and change
One’s rigidity of beliefs and range of interests
15-12
Other Personality Traits
15-13
Locus of Control
Self-Efficacy
Authoritarianism
Self-Esteem
Locus of Control
Internal
15-14
External
Self-Efficacy
Self-efficacy indicates
a person's beliefs
about his or her capabilities
to perform a task.
15-15
Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism is the
extent to which
an individual believes
that power and status differences
are appropriate within
hierarchical social systems like
business organizations.
15-16
Self-Esteem
Self-esteem is the
extent to which
a person believes that
he or she is a
worthwhile and deserving individual.
15-17
Attitudes across Cultures
Job
satisfaction
15-18
Organizational
commitment
Table 15.1 Job Satisfaction Differences
Between Japanese and U.S. Workers
15-19
Perception
Perception is the
set of processes by which an
individual becomes aware of and
interprets information
about the environment.
15-20
Stress
Stress is an
individual's response
to a strong stimulus.
15-21
Theories of Motivation
Need-based
models
Process-based
models
Reinforcement
model
15-22
Need-Based Models
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
• McClelland’s Learned Needs
Framework
• Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
15-23
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self-actualization
Self-esteem
Social
Security
Physiological
15-24
McClelland’s Learned Needs Framework
Need for achievement
Need for power
Need for affiliation
15-25
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Hygiene
factors
15-26
Motivator
factors
Expectancy Theory:
A Process-Based Model of Motivation
Expectancy theory suggests
that people are motivated
to behave in certain ways to the
extent that they perceive that such
behaviors will lead to outcomes they
find personally attractive.
15-27
Reinforcement Model
• Behavior that results in a positive
outcome will likely be repeated under the
same circumstances in the future
• Behavior that results in a negative
outcome will result in a different choice
under the same circumstances in the
future
15-28
Leadership
Leadership is the use of
noncoercive influence to shape the
goals of a group or organization, to
motivate behavior toward reaching
those goals, and to help determine the
group or organizational culture.
15-29
Table 15.2 Differences between
Leadership and Management
Activity
15-30
Management
Leadership
Creating an agenda
Planning and
budgeting.
Establishing detailed
steps and timetables.
Establishing direction.
Developing vision.
Developing a human
network for achieving
the agenda
Organizing and
staffing.
Aligning people.
Communicating
direction.
Executing plans
Controlling and
problem solving.
Monitoring results.
Motivating and
inspiring. Energizing
people.
Outcomes
Produces
predictability and
order.
Produces change.
Establishing
structure.
Figure 15.2 The Role of Managers
Varies across Cultures
15-31
Models of Decision Making
Normative
Descriptive
15-32
Figure 15.3 Models of the
Decision-Making Process
15-33
Steps in the
Normative Model
Problem recognition
Identifying alternatives
Evaluating alternatives
Selecting the best alternative
Implementation
Follow up and evaluation
15-34
Characteristics of
Mature Teams
• Develops a well-defined role
structure
• Establishes norms for members
• Promotes cohesiveness
• Includes informal leaders
15-35